Additional file 1




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Additional file 1: Additional species with mutation rate (µ) and EPC rate (%) data. X = number of mutant bands, N = number of offspring analysed, Bands = number of bands per individual. In some cases a mutation rate is given without the data needed to calculate it: here columns X,N and Bands are left blank. Mutation rate is calculated as X / (N x Bands).


species

common name

EPC

µ

X

N

Bands

Ref

Acrocephalus melanopogon

Moustached wrbler

27

0.0155










[1]

Actidis hypoleucos

Common sandpiper

15.7

0.0071

19

57

47.1

[2]

Alectura lathami

Australian brush turkey

27.7

0.0040

5

47

26.3

[3]

Anthus spinoletta

Alpine water pipit

5.2

0.0436

151

71

48.8

[4]

Aphelocoma coerulescens

Florida scrub jay

1.4

0.0055

31

139

40.5

[5]

Athene noctua

Little owl

0

0.0036

4

53

20.95

[6]

Calidris mauri

Western sandpiper

7

0.0110

20

57

32

[7]

Calonectris diomedia

Cory's shearwater

0

0.0077

7

34

26.7

[8]

Carduilis tristis

American goldfinch

14.3

0.0130

14

54

20

[9]

Carpodacus mexicanus

House finch

14.4

0.0178

2

5

22.5

[10]

Charadrius alexandrinus

Kentish plover

3.9

0.0188

57

168

18

[11]

Charadrius hiacula

Ringed plover

0

0.0168

15

50

17.9

[12]

Charadrius semipalmatus

Semipalmated plover

4.7

0.0012

2

62

27.3

[13]

Corvus monedula

Jackdaw

0

0.0044










[14]

Cyanoliseus patagonus

Burrowing parrot

1.2

0.0033

14

165

25.6

[15]

Euplecter orix

Red bishop

14.1

0.0188

28

145

10.26

[16]

Falco naumani

Lesser kestrel

3.4

0.0033

3

84

10.9

[17]

Falco sparverius

American kestrel

11.2

0.0259

25

79

12.2

[18]

Fregate minor

Frigate bird

2.2

0.0165

21

90

14.1

[19]

Grallina cyanoleuca

Australian magpie-lark

2.9

0.0023

5

100

21.3

[20]

Lanius minor

Grey shrike

0

0.0049

14

136

21

[21]

Manorina melanophrys

Bell miner

4.2

0.0768

56

24

30.4

[22]

Miliaria calandra

Corn bunting

5.3

0.0083

4

36

13.4

[23]

Oceanites oceanicus

Wilson's storm petrel

0

0.0050

24

126

38.1

[24]

Oceanodroma leucorhoa

Leach's storm petrel

0

0.0078

7

42

21.4

[25]

Otus asio

Eastern sceech owl

0

0.0072

28

76

51

[26]

Otus flammeolus

Flammulated owl

0

0.0031

5

37

44

[27]

Panurus piarmicus

Bearded tit

14.4

0.0041

20

187

26

[28]

Parus ater

Coal tit

25.3

0.0085

14

118

14.03

[29]

Parus atricapillus

Black-capped chickadee

17

0.0941

101

53

20.26

[30]

Parus montanus

Willow tit

1

0.0120

26

111

19.5

[31]

Phainopepla nitens

Phainopepla

0

0.0063

6

34

27.8

[32]

Phoebastria irrorata

Waved albatross

25

0.0040










[33]

Phalaropus lobatus

red-necked phalarope

1.7

0.0120










[34]

Pygoscelis antarctica

Chinstrap penguin

0

0.0074

6

76

10.6

[35]

Remiz pendulinus

Penduline tit

6.9

0.0568

68

105

11.4

[36]

Serinus canaria

Canary

0

0.0019










[37]

Serinus serinus

Serin

9.4

0.0044

14

153

21

[38]

Setophaga ruticilla

American redstart

40

0.0052

5

62

15.4

[39]

Sterna hirundo

Common tern

0

0.0118

7

29

20.5

[40]

Sturnus unicolor

Spotless starling

16

0.0052

24

270

17.06

[41]

Thalassoica antarctica

Antarctic petrels

9.5

0.0094

11

38

30.9

[42]

Thyothorus ludovicianus

Carolina wrens

0

0.0197

22

84

13.3

[43]

Tockus monteiri

Monteiros hornbill

0

0.0143

32

135

16.62

[44]

Vireo olivaceus

Red-eyed vireo

57.9

0.0000










[45]

Zonotrichia albicollis

White-throated sparrow

31.8

0.0130










[46]

Zosterops lateralis

Capricorn silvereye

0

0.0000










[47]


Supplementary Table 1: source data references. Numbers equate to numbers in the Table under ‘Refs’.
1. Blomqvist D, Fessl B, Hoi H, Kleindorfer S: High frequency of extra-pair fertilisations in the moustached warbler, a songbird with a variable breeding system. Behaviour 2005, 142:1133-1148.

2. Mee A, Whitfield DP, Thompson DBA, Burke T: Extrapair paternity in the common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos, revealed by DNA fingerprinting. Anim Behav 2004, 67:333-342.

3. Birks SM: Paternity in the Australian brush-turkey, Alectura lathami, a megapode bird with uniparental care. Behav Ecol 1997, 8:560-568.

4. Reyer H-U, Bollman K, Schläpfer AR, Schymainda A, Klecack G: Ecological determinants of extrapair fertilizations and egg dumping in alpine water pipits (Anthus spinoletta). Behav Ecol 1996, 8:534-543.

5. Quinn JS, Woolfenden GE, Fitzpatrick JW, White BN: Multi-locus DNA fingerprinting supports genetic monogamy in Florida scrub-jays. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 1999, 45:1-10.

6. Muller W, Epplen JT, Lubjuhn T: Genetic paternity analyses in little owls (Athene noctua): does the high rate of paternal care select against extra-pair young? J Ornithol 2001, 142:195-203.

7. Blomqvist D, Kempenaers B, Lanctot RB, Sandercock BK: Genetic parentage and mate guarding in the Arctic-breeding western sandpiper. Auk 2002, 119:228-233.

8. Rabouam C, Bretagnolle V, Bigot Y, Periquet G: Genetic relationships of Cory's shearwater: parentage, mating assortment, and geographic differentiation revealed by DNA fingerprinting. Auk 2000, 117:651-662.

9. Gissing GJ, Crease TJ, Middleton ALA: Extrapair paternity associated with renesting in the American goldfinch. Auk 1998, 115:230-234.

10. Hill GE, Montgomerie R, Roeder C, Boag PT: Sexual selection and cockoldry in a monogamous songbird: implications for sexual selection theory. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 1994, 35:193-199.

11. Küpper C, Kis J, Kosztolányi A, Székely T, Cuthill IC, Blomqvist D: Genetic mating system and timing of extra-pair fertilizations in the Kentish plover. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 2004, 57:32-39.

12. Wallander J, Blomqvist D, Lifjeld JT: Genetic and social monogamy - does it occur without mate guarding in the ringed plover? Ethology 2001, 107:561-572.

13. Zharikov Y, Nol E: Copulation behaviour, mate guarding, and paternity in the semipalmated plover. Condor 2000, 102:231-235.

14. Henderson IG, Hart PJB, Burke T: Strict monogamy in a semi-colonial passerine: the jackdaw Corvus monedula. J Avian Biol 2000, 31:177-182.

15. Masello JF, Sramkova A, Quillfeldt P, Epplen JT, Lubjuhn T: Genetic monogamy in burrowing parrots Cyanoliseus patagonus? J Avian Biol 2002, 33:99-103.

16. Friedl TWP, Klump GM: Determinants of male mating success in the red bishop (Euplectes orix). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 1999, 46:387-399.

17. Negro JJ, Villarroel M, Tella JL, Kunhlein U, Hiraldo F, Donazar JA, Bird DM: DNA fingerprinting reveals a low incidence of extra-pair fertilizations in the lesser kestrel. Anim Behav 1996, 51:935-943.

18. Villarroel M, Bird DM, Kuhnlein U: Copulatory behaviour and paternity in the American kestrel: the adaptive significance of frequent copulations. Anim Behav 1998, 56:289-299.

19. Dearborn DC, Anders AD, Parker PG: Sexual dimorphism, extrapair fertilisations, and operational sex ratio in great frigatebirds (Fregata minor). Behav Ecol 2001, 12:746-752.

20. Hall ML, Masgrath RD: Duetting and mate-guarding in Australian magpie-larks (Grallina cyanoleuca). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 2000, 47:180-187.

21. Valera F, Hoi H, Kristín A: Male shrikes punish unfaithful females. Behav Ecol 2003, 14:403-408.

22. Conrad KF, Clarke MF, Robertson RJ, Boag PT: Paternity and the relatedness of helpers in the cooperatively breeding bell miner. Condor 1998, 100:343-349.

23. Hartley IR, Shepherd M, Robson T, Burke T: Reproductive success of ploygynous male corn buntings (Miliaria calandra) as confirmed by DNA fingerprinting. Behav Ecol 1993, 4:310-317.

24. Quillfeldt P, Schmoll T, Peter H-U, Epplen JT, Lubjuhn T: Genetic monogamy in Wilson's storm petrel. Auk 2001, 118:242-248.

25. Mauck RA, Waite TA, Parker PG: Monogamy in Leach's storm petrel: DNA fingerprinting evidence. Auk 1995, 112:473-482.

26. Lawless SG, Ritchison G, Klatt PH, Westneat DF: The mating strategies of eastern screech-owls: a genetic analysis. Condor 1997, 99:213-217.

27. Arsenault DP, Stacey PB, Hoelzer GA: No extra-pair fertilization in flammulated owls despite aggregated nesting. Condor 2002, 104:197-201.

28. Hoi H, Hoi-Leitner M: An alternative route to coloniality in the bearded tit: females pursue extra-pair fertilizations. Behav Ecol 1997, 8:115-119.

29. Lubjuhn T, Gerken T, Brün J, Epplen JT: High frequency of extra-pair paternity in the coal tit. J Avian Biol 1999, 30:229-233.

30. Otter K, Ratcliffe L, Boag PT: Extra-pair paternity in the black-capped chickadee. Condor 1994, 96:218-222.

31. Orell M, Rytkönen S, Launonen V, Welling P, Koivula K, Kimpulainen K, Bachmann L: Low frequency of extra-pair paternity in the Willow Tit Parus montanus as revealed by DNA fingerprinting. Ibis 1997, 139:562-566.

32. Chu M, Koenig WD, Godinez A, McIntosh CE, Fleischer RC: Social and genetic monogamy in territorial and loosely colonial populations of phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens). Auk 2002, 119:770-777.

33. Huyvaert KP, Anderson DJ, HJones TC, Duan W, Parker PG: Extra-pair paternity in waved albatrosses. Mol Ecol 2000, 9:1415-1419.

34. Schamel D, Tracy DM, Lank DB, Westneat DF: Mate guarding, copulation strategies and paternity in the sex-role reversed, sexually polyandrous red-necked phalarope Phalaropus lobatus. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 2004, 57:110-118.

35. Moreno J, Boto L, Fargallo JA, de Léon A, Potti J: Absence of extra-pair fertilisations in the chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica. J Avian Biol 2000, 31:580-583.

36. Schleicher B, Hoi H, Valera F, Hoi-Leitner M: The importance of different paternity guards in the polygynandrous penduline tit (Remiz pendulinus). Behav 1997, 134:941-959.

37. Vogt C, Leitner S, Gahr M: Mate fidelity in a population of island canaries (Serinus canaria) in the Madeiran archipelago. J Ornithol 2003, 144:86-92.

38. Hoi-Leitner M, Hoi H, Romero-Pujante M, Valera F: Female extra-pair behaviour and environmental quality in the serin (Serinus serinus): a test of the 'constrained female hypothesis'. Proc Roy Soc Lond B 1999, 266:1021-1026.

39. Perreault S, Lemon RE, Kuhnlein U: Patterns and corrlates of extrapair paternity in American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla). Behav Ecol 1997, 8:612-621.

40. Griggio M, Matessi G, Marin G: No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo). Ital J Zool 2004, 71:219-222.

41. Cordero PJ, Veiga JP, Moreno J, Parkin DT: Extra-pair paternity in the facultatively polygynous spotless starling, Sturnus unicolor. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 2003, 54:1-6.

42. Lorensten S-H, Amundsen T, Athonisen K, Lifjeld JT: Molecular evidence for extrapair paternity and female-female pairs in antarctic petrels. Auk 2000, 117:1042-1047.

43. Haggerty TM, Morton ES, Fleischer RC: Genetic monogamy in Carolina wrens (Thyothorus ludovicianus). Auk 2001, 118:215-219.

44. Stanback M, Richardson DS, Boix-Hinzen C, Mendelsohn J: Genetic monogamy in Monteiro's hornbill, Tockus monteiri. Anim Behav 2002, 63:787-793.

45. Morton ES, Stutchbury BJM, Howlett JS, Piper WH: Genetic monogamy in blue-headed vireos and a comparison with a sympatric vireo with extrapair paternity. Behav Ecol 1998, 9:515-524.

46. Tuttle EM: Alternative reproductive strategies in the white-throated sparrow: behavioural and genetic evidence. Behav Ecol 2003, 14:425-432.



47. Robertson BC, Degnan SM, Kikkawa J, Moritz CC: Genetic monogamy in the absence of paternity guards: the Capricorn silvereye, Zosterops lateralis chlorocephalus, on Heron Island. Behav Ecol 2001, 12:666-673.



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