Added in 2003 – Deleted in 2004
Reasons for deletion
The pest Phyllonorycter issikii is spreading in Europe but it is not considered as a damaging pest in areas where it occurs. PRA (03-10337) concluded that the pest did not have the characteristics of a quarantine pest. In 2004 it was therefore removed from the EPPO Alert List.
Phyllonorycter issikii (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae – Lime leaf miner)
Why The EPPO Panel on Quarantine Pests for Forestry decided that Phyllonorycter issikii, a leaf miner of Tilia spp., should be added to the EPPO Alert List because it has recently been found into new areas (e.g. Czech Republic (Šefrová, 2002), Estonia (NPPO, 2003), Germany (NPPO, 2003), Lithuania (Noreika, 1998), Ukraine and several locations in European Russia).
Where EPPO region: Czech Republic (found in June 2000, but causes little damage), Estonia (little damage), Germany (found in September 2002 on T. cordata, little damage), Hungary (found in 2002), Lithuania (recently introduced, found in Pagėgiai park in Šilutė district and Vilnius city on T. cordata), Russia (South of the Far East; South and centre of the European part – introduced into the cities of Voronezh, Samara, Ufa, Moscow and their vicinities), Ukraine (introduced).
Asia: Korea, Russia (South of the Far East), Japan.
On which plants Tilia cordata (preferred host), T. amurensis, T. mandshurica, T. maximowicziana and other Tilia, but also Betula platyphylla. More data is needed on the susceptibility of T. platyphyllos or T. europaea, which are widely planted in western Europe.
Damage P. issikii has two generations. Adults (brownish moths with a wingspan of 7-7.5 mm) are characterized by seasonal dimorphism. Moths fly from the end of June till the middle of July. The second generation develops from the end of July till the end of August. Overwintering stages are pupae and adults. Larvae make rather large elliptical mines in the lower side of leaves of Tilia trees. For example, in 1987 in Voronezh region of European Russia, 70% of lime leaves were damaged. Presence of many leaf mines may lead to a considerable reduction of the ornamental quality and vigour of Tilia trees.
Dissemination Data on the natural spread of P. issikii (adults are flying) is lacking. Over long distances, the introduction of eggs, larvae and pupae to new areas is possible with plants for planting with leaves originating in areas of its distribution. Pupae can be introduced with fallen leaves (with soil).
Pathway Plants for planting, leaves of Tilia with soil or vehicles, cut branches from countries where P. issikii occurs.
Possible risks Tilia species are widely grown in the EPPO region, especially for ornamental purposes. The pest causes serious damage to ornamental trees in some countries. It has entered and established in several new regions and is probably able to establish in many other EPPO countries.
Source(s) EPPO Data sheet originally drafted by Dr Bassova (Russia), 2003.
Pest Risk Assessment done by the EPPO Panel on Quarantine Pests for Forestry, 2003.
Noreika, R. (1998) Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidaee) in Lithuania. Acta Zoologica Lituanica, Entomologia, 8(3), 34-37.
Available also on Internet - http://server.ekoi.lt/library/acta_zoologica/1998/AZL98-3-34-37.pdf
Šefrová, H. (2002) [Phyllonorycter issikii – the latest information on a new member of our fauna.] Abstract of a paper presented at a Conference on Zoology, Brno, CZ, 2002-01-14/15.
Szabóky, C. (2004) [The spread of the leaf miner Phyllonorycter issikii Kumata 1963 (Lep. Gracillariidae) in Hungary.] (in Hungarian). Növényvédelem, 40(6), 301-302.
NPPO of Estonia, 2003-10
NPPO of Germany, 2003-09 and 2003-12.
EPPO RS 2003/062, 2003/105, 2003/135, 2003/136, 2004/016, 2004/095
Panel review date 2004-03 Entry date 2003-05