Added in 1999 – Deleted in 2000
Reasons for deletion
The pests R. bilineatus, R. phoenicis and R. vulneratus were considered less important that R. ferrugineus and R. palmarum. In 2000 they were therefore removed from the EPPO Alert List.
Rhynchophorus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - palm weevils
Why Following the introduction of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in Spain, an assessment of the risks presented by other exotic palm weevils for southern countries has been made by Spanish scientists. Their conclusion was that R. ferrugineus and R. palmatum were the most threatening species. Other species like Dynamis borassi, R. quadrangulus and Matemasius cinnamominus were considered of little importance. R. bilineatus, R. phoenicis and R. vulneratus were considered of intermediate importance.
Damage Severely attacked palm trees show a total loss of the palms and rotting of the trunk which lead to the death of the tree. Larvae bore tunnels in the trunk.
Where Asia: Indonesia (Buru, Sulawesi, Maluku). Oceania: Papua New Guinea, Solomon islands.
On which plants Cocos nucifera, Metroxylon sagu, M. solomonense.
Where Tropical and equatorial Africa (from Senegal to Ethiopia, and to South Africa). Introduction into South America is speculated but has not been verified.
On which plants Borassus spp., Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene spp., Phoenix spp. (including P. dactylifera).
Where Asia: Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sumatra and other islands), Japan (south), Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand. Oceania: Papua New Guinea.
On which plants Areca catechu, Arenga saccharifera, Cocos nucifera, Corypha gebanga, Elaeis guineensis, Livistona chinensis, Metroxylon sagu, Oncosperma tigillaria, O. horrida, Oreodoxa regia.
Pathway Palmae plants for planting (including date palms and ornamental palms) from infested countries.
Possible risks Date palms are important crops in northern African countries, and ornamental palms are widely planted in the Mediterranean area. These insects are difficult to detect by simple visual inspections (larvae live inside the plants), and young plants can be infested by eggs or larvae which are also difficult to see.
Source(s) Barranco, P.; de la Peña, J.; Martín, M.M.; Cabello, T. (1998) Eficacia del control químico de la nueva plaga de las palmeras Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Col.: Curculionidae). Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 24(1), 23-40
CABI maps no. 258 & 259.
Esteban-Durán, J.; Yela, J.L.; Beitia-Crespo, F.; Jiménez-Alvarez, A. (1998) Curculiónidos exóticos susceptibles de ser introducidos en España y otros países de la Unión Europa a través de vegetales importados (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Rhynchophorinae). Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 24(1), 23-40.
EPPO RS 99/012
Panel review date - Entry date 1999-01