AC19 Doc. 15. 1 Convención sobre el comercio internacional de especies




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AC19 Doc. 15.1
CONVENCIÓN SOBRE EL COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL DE ESPECIES

AMENAZADAS DE FAUNA Y FLORA SILVESTRES


___________________


Decimonovena reunión del Comité de Fauna

Ginebra (Suiza), 18-21 de agosto de 2003



Conservación y comercio de tortugas terrestres y galápagos
[Resolución Conf. 11.9 (Rev. CoP12) y Decisión 12.43]

ABORDAR LAS RECOMENDACIONES FORMULADAS EN EL CURSILLO DE KUNMING

Este documento ha sido preparado por Estados Unidos de América.

1. El párrafo h) bajo INSTA de la Resolución Conf. 11.9 (Rev. CoP12), conservación y comercio de tortugas terrestres y galápagos, reza como sigue:



a todas las Partes, en particular, las de la región de Asia, a colaborar en todos los aspectos de la conservación, la gestión, el comercio y la aplicación de la Convención para las tortugas terrestres y los galápagos, tomando en consideración las recomendaciones formuladas en el cursillo técnico sobre conservación y comercio de tortugas terrestres y galápagos celebrado en Kunming, China, del 25 al 28 de marzo de 2002.

2. Aunque los participantes en el cursillo de Kunming acordaron generalmente que “todas las especies de tortugas asiáticas aún no inscritas deberían incluirse en los Apéndices de la CITES”, reconocieron que no era factible preparar propuestas de inclusión para todos los taxa concernidos antes de la fecha límite fijada para la presentación de propuestas. En consecuencia, recomendaron concretamente que se propusiera la inclusión en el Apéndice II de 12 taxa en la CdP12. Las recomendaciones formuladas en el cursillo de Kunming fueron aceptadas por el Comité de Fauna en su 18a. reunión (San José, abril de 2002), y ratificadas por las Partes en la CdP12, cuando aceptaron el informe del Presidente del Comité de Fauna. En la CdP12 se presentaron propuestas para 11 de esos taxa (abarcando 22 especies) y todas ellas fueron adoptadas por consenso.

3. Reconociendo además que tal vez no sea factible incluir todas las especies restantes de tortugas asiáticas en la CdP13, es importante que las Partes en la CITES y el Comité de Fauna se centren en los taxa cuya inclusión en los Apéndices se estima prioritaria. Estados Unidos solicitó a la Chelonian Research Foundation (CRF) que preparase el documento adjunto, en el que se evalúa el estado de conservación y las amenazas derivadas del comercio para las tortugas terrestres y galápagos y se formulan recomendaciones sobre las prioridades para incluir especies en los Apéndices. Este documento es una versión actualizada y revisada de un documento presentado por la CRF en el cursillo de Kunming. Las recomendaciones enunciadas en ese documento constituyeron la base de las recomendaciones formuladas por consenso en el cursillo de Kunming sobre las prioridades de inclusión de las tortugas terrestres y galápagos en la CdP12.

4. Estados Unidos estima que este documento constituirá un instrumento útil para orientar las deliberaciones del Comité de Fauna y solicita que se remita a la consideración del Grupo de trabajo sobre las tortugas terrestres y galápagos del Comité de Fauna.

AC19 Doc. 15.1
Anexo
(English only/ Seulement en anglais / Únicamente en inglés)

Conservation and Trade of Asian Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises:

Updated Review of Status and Threats

with Recommendations for CITES Listings
Compilation and Recommendations by

Anders G.J. Rhodin,

Chelonian Research Foundation
In this document, Chelonian Research Foundation (CRF): (1) reviews the conservation status and trade threats to 88 species of freshwater turtles and tortoises in Asia using IUCN 2002 Red List status criteria (IUCN, 2002) and CITES listing status, including additions to the Appendices approved at the 12th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES (CoP 12) in Santiago, Chile in November 2002; and (2) provides updated and revised recommendations for all Asian freshwater turtles and tortoise species regarding the possible need for additional CITES listing (or listing changes) for those species that are threatened by trade. This document is an updated and revised version of a paper presented at the CITES Technical Workshop on Conservation of and Trade in Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises, held in Kunming, China in March 2002 (“Kunming CITES Workshop”) (Rhodin, 2002). Recommendations from that paper formed the basis for the Kunming CITES Workshop’s consensus recommendation on listing priorities for Asian freshwater turtles and tortoises for CoP 12. The recommendations were adopted at the 18th meeting of the Animals Committee, and culminated in the listing of 22 species of Asian freshwater turtles in Appendix II at CoP 12. All CRF recommendations made in the current document are intended as guidance to the CITES Animals Committee and the CITES Parties in preparation for the 13th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (CoP 13) in Bangkok, Thailand in October, 2004.

Much of the information presented here derives from the published Proceedings of the 1999 Cambodia Workshop on Asian Turtle Trade (van Dijk, Stuart, and Rhodin, 2000, and separate publications therein), including the IUCN 2000 Red List status categories proposed by the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group and Asian Turtle Trade Working Group (IUCN/SSC TFTSG and ATTWG, 2000; Hilton-Taylor, 2000).

As a result of the listing proposals adopted at CoP 12, 48 of 88 species (55%) of Asian freshwater turtles and tortoises are now listed in the CITES Appendices. All 8 species (100%) of tortoises are listed, therefore only half (40 of 80) of all Asian freshwater turtles are currently listed. Of the 40 species of Asian freshwater turtles not currently listed by CITES, available information indicates that an additional 24 species (60%) should be considered for listing based on degree of endangerment and documented trade, and that 16 species (40%) probably do not need listing at present based on degree of endangerment and documented trade (however, see paragraph below on similarity of appearance). In addition, several already-listed taxa appear to warrant a change in status under CITES, and further recommendations are made regarding species that should be considered for uplisting, downlisting, or no change. A summarized breakdown of these CRF recommendations to CITES is presented in Tables 1-3, as based on the status of Asian chelonians documented in Appendix 1. Recognizing that it may not be feasible to consider listing an additional 24 species of Asian freshwater turtles at CoP 13, CRF has presented a prioritized list of the top 7 taxa (species and genera) that need urgent action to prevent further detrimental effects of unregulated trade (Table 4). These 7 taxa represent the minimum effort that should be expended for species proposals at CoP 13.

The Cambodia Workshop on Asian Turtle Trade (van Dijk et al., 2000) made a strong recommendation that all species of Asian freshwater turtles be placed under CITES trade regulations, either in CITES Appendix I if specifically warranted, or Appendix II for all other species. The Kunming CITES Workshop also agreed that “all the remaining non-CITES listed species of Asian turtles should be listed under the Appendices to CITES.” Fully 100% of all worldwide (and Asian) marine turtles and tortoises are already listed by CITES. However, only 50% of Asian freshwater turtles are listed by CITES, despite 75% being threatened, and about 62% threatened by trade. Since many Asian freshwater turtles resemble one another, at least to the inexperienced eye, there remains a significant loophole through which exporters and importers often circumvent national and international law to continue trading many CITES-listed species. Listing all Asian turtles on CITES would close this loophole. Such a proposal warrants further consideration and discussion.

Certainly, if all Asian turtles are listed by CITES, provisions would need to be made within CITES regulations for how best to preserve and encourage the large and legitimate food and medicinal trade in farm-raised turtles (especially for Pelodiscus sinensis, Chinemys reevesii, and Ocadia sinensis), as well as legal transport of animals for true scientific and conservation-oriented purposes, including facilitating captive conservation breeding and relocation efforts for the most endangered species.

The CITES Animals Committee should consider these CRF recommendations carefully in order to facilitate and support future considerations for formal listing proposals developed separately by the Parties.



Table 1. This table lists the 48 species of Asian non-marine native turtles and tortoises already listed by CITES, with IUCN Red List status categories, CITES Appendix listings, and CRF proposals for CITES listing reviews.

Family

Taxon

IUCN
red List


CITES Status

CITES Proposal Appendix

Bataguridae

Batagur baska

CR

I

No change




Callagur borneoensis

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Cuora amboinensis

VU

II

No change




Cuora aurocapitata

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Cuora flavomarginata

EN

II

No change




Cuora galbinifrons

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Cuora mccordi

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Cuora pani quota

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild




Cuora trifasciata

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Cuora yunnanensis

CR

II

Uplist to I if rediscovered




Cuora zhoui

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Geoclemys hamiltonii

VU

I

Downlist to II




Heosemys depressa

CR

Ii

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Heosemys grandis

VU

II

No change




Heosemys leytensis

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Heosemys spinosa

EN

II

No change




Hieremys annandalii

EN

II

No change




Kachuga dhongoka

EN

II

No change




Kachuga kachugaq

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Kkachuga smithii

LR:nt

II

No change




Kachuga sylhetensis

EN

II

No change




Kachuga tecta

LR: Ic

I

Downlist to II




Kachuga tentoria

LR:Ic

II

No change




Kachuga trivittata

EN

II

No change




Leucocephalon yuwonoi

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Mauremys annamensis

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Mauremys mutica

EN

II

No change




Melanochelys tricarinata

VU

I

Downlist to II




Morenia ocellata

VU

I

No change




Orlitia borneensis

EN

II

No change




Pyxidea mouhotii

EN

II

No change




Siebenrockiella crassicollis

VU

II

No change

Platysternidae

Platysternon megacephlum

EN

II

No change

Testudinidae

Geochelone elegans

LR:Ic

II

No change




Geochelone platynota

CR

II

Uplist to I or zero wild quota




Indotestudo elongata

EN

II

Uplist to I or zeor wild quota




Indotestudo forstenii

EN

II

Uplist to I to zero wild quota




Indotestudo travancorica

VU

II

Uplist to I to zero wild quota




Manouria emys

EN

II

Uplist to I to zero wild quota




Manouria impressa

VU

II

No change




Testudo horsfieldii

VU

II

No change

Trionychidae

Aspideretes gangeticus

VU

II

No change




Aspideretes nigricans

CR

I

No change




Chitra chitra

CR

II

Uplist to I to zero wild quota




Chitra indica

EN

II

No change




Lissemys punctata

LR:Ic

II

No change




Pelochelys bibroni

VU

II

No change




Pelochelys cantorii

EN

II

No change
















Table 2. The following list of 24 of 40 Asian species not yet listed by CITES need potential review and probable CITES listing due to significant levels of endangerment and documented trade. They are listed with IUCN Red List status categories, CITES Appendix listings, and CRF proposals for CITES listing reviews.

Family Taxon IUCN Red List CITES Proposal Status

Bataguridae Chinemys megalocephala EN List on Appendix II

Chinemys nigricans EN List on Appendix II

Chinemys reevesii EN List on Appendix II but facilitate permitting for commercial turtle farms

Cyclemys dentata LR:nt List on Appendix II

Geoemyda spengleri EN List on Appendix II

Hardella thurjii VU List on Appendix II

Malayemys subtrijuga VU List on Appendix II

Morenia petersi VU List on Appendix II

Notochelys platynota VU List on Appendix II

Ocadia sinensis EN List on Appendix II but facilitate permitting for commercial turtle farms

Sacalia bealei EN List on Appendix II

Sacalia quadriocellata EN List on Appendix II

Carettochelyidae Carettochelys insculpta VU List on Appendix II

Chelidae Chelodina mccordi CR List on Appendix I or on II with zero wild quota

Chelodina parkeri VU List on Appendix II

Chelodina siebenrocki LR:nt List on Appendix II

Trionychidae Amyda cartilaginea VU List on Appendix II

Aspideretes hurum VU List on Appendix II

Aspideretes leithii VU List on Appendix II

Lissemys scutata DD List on Appendix II

Nilssonia formosa EN List on Appendix II

Palea steindachneri EN List on Appendix II

Pelodiscus sinensis VU List on Appendix II but facilitate permitting for commercial turtle farms

Rafetus swinhoei CR List on Appendix I or on II with zero wild quota

Table 3. The following list of 16 of 40 Asian species not listed by CITES do not yet appear to need review or CITES listing, but need to be monitored for potential future review, especially the Endangered and Vulnerable species. However, consideration for listing these species should probably be made for look-alike reasons and to complete the listing of all Asian freshwater turtles.

Family Taxon IUCN Red List Status

Bataguridae Geoemyda japonica EN

Geoemyda silvatica EN

Mauremys iversoni DD

Mauremys japonica LR:nt

Mauremys pritchardi DD

Melanochelys trijuga LR:nt

Ocadia glyphistoma DD

Ocadia philippeni DD

Sacalia pseudocellata DD
Chelidae Chelodina novaeguineae LR:lc

Chelodina pritchardi EN

Chelodina reimanni LR:nt

Elseya branderhorsti VU

Elseya novaeguineae LR:lc

Emydura subglobosa LR:lc
Trionychidae Dogania subplana LR:lc
Table 4. Based on the updated and revised data presented in this report and in consideration of their degree of endangerment and levels of documented trade, the following is a prioritized list of the top 7 species (or genera) that should probably be considered for preparation of formal proposals for listing on at least CITES Appendix II.

1. Family Carettochelyidae: Carettochelys insculpta

2. Family Chelidae: Chelodina spp. (C. mccordi, C. parkeri, C. siebenrocki, and others by look-alike reasons)

3. Family Bataguridae: Chinemys spp. (C. reevesii, C. megalocephala, C. nigricans)

4. Family Bataguridae: Morenia petersi

5. Family Bataguridae: Cyclemys spp. (C. dentata, C. atripons, C. oldhamii, and others)

6. Family Trionychidae: Amyda cartilaginea

7. Family Bataguridae: Malayemys subtrijuga

STATUS OF NATIVE ASIAN CHELONIANS

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