A. The Cell. Its Structure and Functions




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GENERAL BIOLOGY (WINTER SEMESTER): SEMINAR SCHEDULE

I. Microscopic Structure of the Living Organism:

A.The Cell. 1. Its Structure and Functions (10/21/14)

B.The Cell. 2. The Cell Cycle (10/22/14)


  • [1] Evolution of the Cell: From Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes (15’)

  • [2] Membrane Structure, Carrier Proteins and Active Membrane Transport, Ion Channels and Electrical Properties of Membranes (15’)

  • [3] Dysfunction of the Chloride Channel: Mucoviscidosis (10’)

  • [4] Lysosomes and Lysosomal (Storage) Diseases: Mucopolysaccharidosis (10’)

  • [5] Peroxysomes and Peroxysomal Diseases: Zellweger Syndrome, Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (XALD) (5’)

  • [6] The Mitochondrion. The Respiratory Chain and ATP Synthesis (15’)

  • [7] The Difference in the Pattern of Inheritance Between Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes, Mitochondrial Inheritance, Mitochondrial Eve and Out-of-Africa Theory (15’)

  • [8] Human Mitochondrial Diseases (Kearns-Sayre syndrome, Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, Pearson syndrome) (5’)

C.The Cell. 3. Cell Death (10/23/14)


  • [9] The Mechanics of Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis (15’)

  • [10] Molecular Control of the Cell-Division Cycle (15’)

  • [11] Necrosis (10’)

  • [12] Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death): Direct Signal Transduction (15’)

  • [13] Apoptosis: Mitochondrial Regulation (Intrinsic Pathway) (15’)

  • [14] The p53 Dependent Process of Competition Between Apoptosis and Neoplasia. Progeria (Premature Senility Syndrome) (10’)

  • [15] The Molecular Basis of Cancer (10’)

  1. Plant Tissues: Dermal and Fundamental Tissue System (10/28/14)

  2. Plant Tissues: Fascicular Tissue Systems, Meristems, Secretory/Excretory Tissues(10/29/14)

  3. Animal Tissues: Epithelium and Muscle Tissue (10/30/14)

  4. Animal Tissues: Connective and Nervous Tissues (11/04/14)

  5. Maintenance of Tissues/The Process of Tissue Renewal (11/05/14)
  • [16] Tissues with Permanent Cells (15’)

  • [17] Renewal by Simple Duplication (20’)

  • [18] Renewal by Stem Cells (20’)

  • [19] Renewal by Pluripotent Stem Cells (20’)

  • [20] The Connective Tissue Cell Family (15’)


  1. Cells in Their Social Context (11/06/14)

  • [1] Cell Junctions and Cell Adhesion,  Catenin Molecules and the Relationship Between Cell Adhesion and Transcription (15’)

  • [2] Cell-Cell Adhesion Disorders (Celiac Disease, Kallman’s Syndrome, Desmosomes and Dermatological Diseases – Pemphigus) (15’)

  • [3] Extracellular Matrix and Integrins (15’)

  • [4] The Cytoskeleton (15’)


II. Biology of Development:

A.Fertilization, Early Stages of Embryo Development (Cleavage) (11/12/14)


      • [5] The Benefits of Sexual Reproduction; The Process of Meiosis, Genetic Recombination (10’)

      • [6] Ovarian Cycle and Its Hormonal Regulation (15’)

      • [7] Gametogenesis, Conversion of Germ Cells into Male and Female Gamets (15’)

      • [8] Natural Methods of Contraception, Natural Family Planning (Symptothermal Method, Cervical Mucus Method, Billings Method) (10’)

      • [9] Mechanical Barrier Methods of Contraception (Condom, Sponge, Cervical Cap, Diaphragm, Intrauterine Device – IUD) (10’)’

      • [10] Fertilization (capacitation, acrosome reaction, penetration of the corona radiata, penetration of the zona pellucida, fusion of the oocyte and sperm cell membranes, natural blocks to polyspermy) (15’)

      • [11] Egg Cell Types and Differences in Cleavage in the Animal Kingdom, Structure Types of Blastula (15’)

B.Gastrulation (11/13/14)


  • [12] Patterns of Gastrulation in the Animal Kingdom, development of coeloma (schizocoelia, enterocoelia) (15’)

  • [13] Differences in Embryological Development of Prostomes and Deuterostomes (5’)

  • [14] Deratives of Three Germ Layers (derivatives of the ectodermal germ layer, derivatives of the endodermal germ layer, derivatives of the mesodermal germ layer – paraxial mesoderm, intermediate mesoderm, lateral plate mesoderm) (15’)

  • [15] Somitogenesis (somite formation and differentition) (5’)

  • [16] Molecular Regulation of Somite Formation and Differentiation (15’)

  • [17] Extra-Embryonic Membranes in Amniotes (Reptiles, Birds, Mammals). Differences and Similarities (10’)

  • [18] Genetic/Molecular Control of Gastrulation (molecular regulation of cell migration and specificaion during the process of gastrulation) (15’)

  • [19] Teratogenesis Associated with Gastrulation (holoprosencephaly, caudal dysgenesis, situs inversus) (10’)

        1. Organogenesis. 1. (11/18/14)

  • [20] Neurulation and Origin of Neural Crest Cells (15’)

  • [1] Molecular Regulation of Neural Induction (15’)

  • [2] Molecular Regulation of Neural Crest Induction (10’)

  • [3] Neural Tube Defects (anencephaly, spina bifida) (10’)

  • [4] Development of the Brain, Molecular Regulation of Brain Development (15’)

  • [5] Development of the Digestive System (15’)

  • [6] Molecular Regulation of the Gut Tube Development (10’)

        1. Organogenesis. 2 (11/19/14)

  • [7] Molecular Regulation of Liver Induction and Pancreas Development (15’)

  • [8] Development of the Heart (establishing of the cardiogenic field, formation and position of the heart tube, formation of the cardiac loop, formation of the cardiac septa) (15’)

  • [9] Molecular Regulation of Cardiac Development (10’)

  • [10] Heart Defects (Holt-Oram syndrome, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defects, persistent truncus arteriosus, transposition of the great vessels) (15’)

  • [11] Development of the Urogenital System (15’)

  • [12] Molecular Regulation of Kidney Development (10’)

  • [13] Molecular Regulation of Genital Duct Development (10’)
  1. Genetic Basis of Development (11/20/14)


  • [14] Caenorhabditis elegans: Developmental Control Genes (15’)

  • [15] Drosophila melanogaster: Genetic Control of Sex Determination (15’)

  • [16] Drosophila melanogaster: Hierarchy of Genes Regulating the Pattern Formation (15’)

  • [17] Homeotic Genes in Human and Mammals (15’)

  • [18] Genetic Control of Sex Determination in Human (15’)

  • [19] Defects in Sex Determination (Klinefelter syndrome, gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome, pseudohermaphroditism, androgen insensivity syndrome) (15’)
  1. Intoduction to Human Embryology (Development of the Human Embryo) (11/25/14)


  • [20] 1st Week of Development: Ovulation to Implantation (10’)

  • [1] 2nd Week of Development: Bilaminar Germ Disc (10’)

  • [2] 3rd Week of Development: Trilaminar Germ Disc (10’)

  • [3] 3rd to 8th Week of Development: The Embryonic Period (derivatives of ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal germ layers, pattering of the anteroposterior axis (15’)

  • [4] Establishment of the Body Axes – Molecular Control (15’)

  • [5] 3th Month to Birth: Development of the Fetus, Fetal Membranes and Placenta (15’)

    • [6] Prenatal Diagnosis – Ultrasonography, Maternal Serum Screening, Amniocenteis, Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) (15’)
  1. Developmental Anomalies (11/26/14)


    • [7] Types of Abnormalities: Disruptings, Deformations, a Syndrome, an Association; Their Possible Aetiology; Minor Anomalies (10’)

    • [8] Overgrowth Disorders (Review) (10’)

    • [9] Skeletal Disorders (Review) (10’)

    • [10] Brain Abnormalities (Review) (10’)

    • [11] Limb and Skin Pigmentation Defects (Review) (10’)

    • [12] Teratogenes and Their Role in the Process of Teratogenesis (Infectious Agents, Physical Agents, Chemical Agents, Hormones) (10’)

    • [13] Fetal Therapy – Fetal Transfussion, Fetal Medical Treatment, Fetal Surgery, Stem Cell Transplantation and Gene Therapy (10’)

III. Animal Structure and Functions:
  1. Nutrition, Water Balance and Waste Disposal (Functional Anatomy of the Alimentary and Excretory Systems); (11/27/14)


    • [14] Structure and Function of the Excretory System in the Light of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology – Protonephridia, Metanephridia, Malpighian Tubules, Gills as Organs of Nitrogen Excretion and Ionic Regulation (15’)

    • [15] Structure and Function of the Excretory System in the Light of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology – Evolution of the Vertebrate Kidney – Pronephros, Mesonephros, Metanephros (15’)

    • [16] The Acid-Base Balance, Its Regulation and Disorders (Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis) (15’)
  2. Gastrointestinal Disorders, Kidney Diseases; (12/02/14)


    • [17] Peptic Ulcer: Pathogenesis (15’)

    • [18] Disorders of the Large Intestine and Their Reasons: Constipation and Diarrhoea (15’)

    • [19] Kidney Diseases: Chronic and Acute Renal Failure, Treatment of Renal Failure by Dialysis with Artificial Kidney (15’)

    • [20] Clinical Abnormalities of Fluid Volume Regulation (Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration, Hypo- and Hypernatremia, Edema) (15’)

  3. Reproduction (Functional Anatomy of the Reproductive System) (12/03/14);

(11/16/10)


    • [1] Structure and Function of the Reproductive System in the Light of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology (15’)

  1. Reproduction (Hormonal Control of Reproductive Activity) (12/04/14)

(11/18/10)

    • [2] The Role of Hormonal Factors in Parturition and Lactation (15’)

    • [3] Hormonal Suppression of Fertility: “The Pill” (15’)

    • [4] The Pineal Gland and Its Role in the Control of Reproductive Activity in Animals (15’)

  1. Circulation and Gas Exchange (Functional Anatomy of Cardio-Vasculatory and Respiratory Systems); (12/09/14)

    • [5] Evolution of the Vertebrate Heart (15’)

    • [6] Congenital Heart Defects (Patent Ductus Arteriosus, Tetralogy of Fallot) (15’)

    • [7] Structure and Function of the Respiratory System in the Light of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology – Gills and External Body Surfaces, Tracheal Systems, Lungs (15’)

  1. Cardiac, Vascular, Blood, and Pulmonary Abnormalities; (12/10/14)

    • [8] Ischemic Heart Disease: Pathogenesis, Surgical Treatment of Coronary Diseases (10’)

    • [9] Arterial Hypertension, Its Aetiology and Pathogenesis (Essential and Secondary Hypertension – Nephrotic Hypertension, Hypertension in Diseases of the Cardio-Vasculatory System, Hypertension in Endocrine Diseases, Neurogenic Hypertension; Malignant Hypertension – Hypertensive Emergencies/Urgencies) (15’)

    • [10] Circulatory Shock (Haemorrhoagic Shock, Neurogenic Shock, Anaphylactic Shock, Septic Shock) (10’)

    • [11] Cardiac Arrhytmias (Tachycardia, Bradycardia, Sinus Arrhytmia, Abnormal Rhytms Resulting From Impulse Conduction Block, Cardiac Arrest) (15’)

    • [12] The Anaemias (Blood Loss Anaemia, Aplastic Anaemia, Megaloblastic Anaemia, Haemolytic Anaemia) (10’)

    • [13] Pulmonary Abnormalities: Chronic Pulmonary Emphysema, Pneumonia, Asthma, Tuberculosis (15’)

    • [14] High Altitude and Deep Sea Physiology (Acute and Chronic Mountain Sickness, Natural Acclimatization of Native Human Beings Living at High Altitudes, Decompression Sickness) (15’)

  1. The Immune System (12/11/14)

    • [15] Organs of the Immune System: Primary Organs – Bone Marrow and Thymus, Secondary Organs – Spleen and Lymph Nodes (5’)

    • [16] The Cellular Basis of Immunity, Leukocytes – Cells of the Immune System (clones and subclones of lymphocytes, T-cell receptors, differentiation and maturation of stimulated cells, circulation of lymphocytes; nonspecific immunity, interferons, macrophages, granulocytes, monokines) (15’)

    • [17] Molecules of the Immune System (immunoglobulins, generation of antigen-binding diversity among immunoglobulins, antigen-antibody complexes, CD molecules, complement, monoclonal antibodies) (15’)

    • [18] Presentation of Antigens: Antigen Presenting Cells – Dendritic Cells, Macrophages, B-Lymphocytes, Monocytes; Cytokines (15’)

    • [19] The Immunologic Response: Patterns, Mechanisms, the Immunologic Memory (15’)

    • [20] Anti-infectious Immunity – Immune Responses Against Bacteriae and Viruses) (5’)

    • [1] Grafts, Graft Rejection, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) (10’)

    • [2] Immunotherapy (10’)

D.Systems of Internal Communication and Regulation (Functional Anatomy of Nervous & Hormonal Systems) (12/16/14)


    • [3] Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System; Regulation (Functional Anatomy of Nervous and Hormonal Systems) (15’)

    • [4] Structure and Function of the Hormonal System in the Light of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology (15’)

    • [5] Intellectual Functions of the Brain (Thoughts, Consciousness, Memory, Learning) (15’)

  1. Somatic Sensations and Hormonal Disorders; (12/17/14)

    • [6] States of Brain Activity (Sleep, Epilepsy, Psychoses) (15’)’

    • [7] Headache: Headache of Intracranial Origin and Extracranial Types of Headache (15’)

    • [8] Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1st Diabetes Mellitus – Lack of Insulin Production by Beta Cells of the Pancreas, Type 2nd Diabetes Mellitus – Resistance of the Metabolic Effects of Insulin (15’)

    • [9] Abnormalities in Adrenocortical Secretion (15’)

  1. Sensory Mechanisms (Functional Anatomy of Sensory Organs); (12/18/14)

    • [10] Abnormalities in the Eye Optics: Farsightedness (Hyperopia), Nearsightedness (Myopia), Astigmatism, Cataracts (15’)

    • [11] The Sense of Hearing: Functional Anatomy of the Ossicular System and the Cochlea, Central Auditory Mechanisms; Hearing Abnormalities (15’)




IV. Biological/Chemical Hazards of Natural Environment:

  1. Introduction to Ecology, Anthropopression (01/07/15)

    • [12] Ecology as the Science: Basic Lows and Terminology; Biotic and Abiotic Components of the Environment; Abiotic Factors of the Biosphere; Bioms (15’)

    • [13] Population Ecology: Characteristics of Population: Density, Dispersion and Its Patterns, Demography: Age Structure, Birth Rate, Death Rate, Generation Time, Sex Ratio, Population Growth Models, Population Limiting Factors: Density Dependant Factors, Density Independant Factors, Human Population Growth (15’)

    • [14] Ecosystems: Trophic Relationships in Ecosystems, Production, Consumption, Decomposition – Primary Productivity, Seconary Productivity, Ecological Efficiency (15’)

    • [15] Cycling of Chemical Elements in Ecosystems – Water, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus (10’)

    • [16] Community Ecology: Definition of the Community, Interspecific Interactions within the Community – Predation, Parasitism, Interspecific competition, Symbiosis, Interspecific Interactions and Community Structure, the Ecological Succession; (15’)

    • [17] Human Impacts on Ecosystems – Disrupting Chemical Cycles Throughout Biosphere, Accelerated Eutrophication of Lakes, Toxins Concentration (5’)

    • [18] Human Impacts on Ecosystems - Greenhouse Effect, Depletion of Atmospheric Ozone (10’)

    • [19] Human Impact on Ecosystems: Acid Rains and Smog (5’)

  1. Mutagens and Mutagenesis (01/08/15)

      • [20] Mutagens (Review), Classification of Mutations, Molecular Mechanisms of Mutation (15’)

      • [1] Mechanisms of DNA Repair (photoreactivation, excision-repair, post-replication repair, and misrepair) (15’)

      • [2] Defects in DNA Repair Synthesis – Xeroderma pigmentosum, fanconi Anemia (15’)

      • [3] Secondary Consequences of Mutations – Metabolic bases of Inherited Diseases (galactosemia, phenyloketonuria, allkaptonuria, albinism) (15’)

      • [4] Secondary Consequences of Mutations – Metabolic bases of Inherited Diseases (Hurler syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease) (15’)

  1. Toxic Mushrooms & Higher Plants (01/13/15)

    • [5] Cytotoxic Mushrooms (Causing Cytotropic Poisonings) – Amanita phalloides, Amanita verna, Amanita virosa, Gyromytra esculenta, Cortinarrius orellanus (15’)

    • [6] Neurotoxic Mushrooms – Inocybe patouillardii, Inocybe godeyi, Inocybe fastigiata, Clitocybe dealbata, Clitocybe cerussata, Paxillus involutus, Amanita muscaria, Amanita porphyria, Amanita pantherina, Mycena pura (15’)

    • [7] Mushrooms Causing Gastrointestinal Poisonings - Boletus calopus, Boletus satanas, Boletus luridus, Romaria formosa, Tricholoma saponaceum, Tylopilus felleus, Russula fragilis, Russula emetica, Hypholoma sublateritium (10’)

    • [8] Plants Affecting the Centtral Nervous System – Conium maculatum, Aethusa cynapium, Cicuta virosa, Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium, Hyoscyamus niger (15’)

    • [9] Plants Afecting the Cardio-Vasculatory System – Digitalis purpurea, Convallaria maialis, Polygonatum odoratum, Evonymus europaeus, Aconitum callybothryon, Chelidonium maius, Taxus baccata (15’)

    • [10] Plants Causing Local Irritation and Abortion – Juniperus sabina (10’)

    • [11] Plants Affecting Kidneys – Rumex acetosella (5’)

    • [12] Plants Affecting the Liver – Mentha pulegium (5’)

  1. Venomous Animals (01/14/15)

      • [13] Review of Major Venomous Animals: Coelenterates (Coelenterata) – blue bottle (Physalia sp.); and Molluscs (Mollusca) – cone shell (Conus sp.), octopuses (Octopus sp.) (15’)

      • [14] Review of Major Venomous Animals: Arthropods (Arthropoda) – the black widow (Latrodectus mactans), the red widow (Latrodectus bishopi), the Mediterranean black widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), the pinktoe tarantula (Avicularia avicularia), tarantula wolf spider (Lycosa tarantula), scorpions (Scorpionoidea), scolopendra (Scolopendra gigantea), wasps (Vespidae), honeybee (Apis mellifera) (15’)

      • [15] Review of Major Venomous Animals: Fishes (Pisces) – stone fish, puffer fish, sea scorpion and other representants of the family Scorpaenidae; and Amphibians (Amphibia) – dart frogs of the family Dendrobatidae (15’)

      • [16] Review of Major Venomous Animals: Reptilians (Reptilia) – Snakes of the Families Colubridae - boomslang (Dispholidus typus), Hydrophiidae (Sea Snakes), and Elapidae – binocellate cobra (Naja naja), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje), black-necked spittingcobra (Naja nigricollis), Indian krait (Bungarus caeruleus), the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), the eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), coral snakes (Micrurus spp.), tiger snake (Notechis scutatus), death adder (Acanthropis antarcticus), red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus), taipan (Oxyuranu scutellatuss) (15’)

      • [17] Review of Major Venomous Animals: Reptilians (Reptilia) - Snakes of the Family Viperidae (Vipers) – the eyelash viper (Bothriechis schlegelii), Gaboon vipers (Bitis arietans, Bitis gabonica), daboia (Vipera russelii), common adder (Vipera berus), aspic viper (Vipera aspis), Saharan horned viper (Cerastes cerastes), Lebetine viper (Vipera lebetina), rock viper (Vipera xanthina) (15’)

      • [18] Review of Major Venomous Animals: Reptilians (Reptilia) - Snakes of the Family Crotalidae (Colubrids) – Okinawa habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis), water mocasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus), timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus), Mexican west coast rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus), South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus), urutu (Bothrops alternatus), jararaca (Bothrops jararaca) (15’)

  1. Allergy (01/15/15)

    • [19] Definition and General Aspects of Allergy; Allergens (Review) (15’)

    • [20] Hypersensitivity: Allergic Reactions, Mechanisms of Allergy (15’)

    • [1] Asthma and the Hygiene Hypothesis (15’)

    • [2] Allergic rhinitis, Atopic Eczema, Food Allergies; Anaphylaxis (15’)

    • [3] Review of Major Allergic Animals, Allergenic Arthropods – Cat Fleas, Cockroaches, Mosquitoes, House Flies, Nonbiting Midges, Flour Beetles, Rice Weevils, Stinking Insects, Silkworms (15’)

    • [4] Review of Major Allergic Animals, Allergenic Arthropods – House Dust Mites (15’)

  1. Parasites (01/20/15)

  • [5] Sources of Human Exposure to Infection or Infestation, Examples, Portals of Entry into Body (15’)

  • [6] Geographic Distribution of Human Parasitoses, Environmental Factors Determining Occurrence of Parasites in the World, Examples, Introduction of Parasitic Diseases by Human Migration (15’)

  • [7] Pathogenesis of Parasitic Disease – Inapparent Infection, Traumatic Damage (Sarcoptes scabiei, Schistosoma spp., large worms), Lytic Necrosis (Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodia, Leishmaniae), Stimulation of Host Tissue Reaction (Entamoena histolytica – Amebomas, Onchocerca volvulus – Onchocercomas), Toxic and Allergic Phenomena (Ticks, Helminth Larvae, Anaphylaxis Due to Rupture of Echinococcus granulosus cysts), Immunity (Pneumonitis Produced by Migrating Ascaris Larvae), Opening of Pathways of Entry of Other Pathogens into the Tissues (15’)

  • [8] Parasites and Cancer (Schistosoma haematobium – Vesical Carcinoma, the Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini – Cholangiocarcinoma) (15’)

  • [9] Human Immunity or Susceptibility to Different Strains of the Same Species or Different Species of Plasmodia Producing Malaria (15’)

  • [10] Problem of Resistance of Malaria parasites to Drugs (15’)

  1. Invertebrates as Vectors of Infectious Diseases (Arthropods); (01/21/15)

    • [11] Ticks and Their Role in Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Q Fever, Relapsing Fever, Tick-Borne Encephalitides, Lyme Disease) (15’)

    • [12] The Role of Mosquitoes in Epidemiology of Arboviral Diseases (Chikunguya Fever, Ross River Fever, Yellow Fever, Dengue, Sant Louis Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis, Rift Valley Fever) (15’)

    • [13] Participation of Mosquitoes in Epidemiology of Human Malaria (15’)

    • [14] Blood-Sucking Diptera and Their Role in Epidemiology of Human Filariases (15’)

    • [15] The Role of Blood-Sucking Dipteran Insects in Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases Caused by Trypanosome Flagellates: African Sleeping Sickness, Chagas’ Disease (15’)

    • [16] The Role of Blood-Sucking Dipteran Insects in Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases Caused by Trypanosome Flagellates: Oriental Sore, Kala-Azar, Mucocutaneous Leishmaniases of the New World (15’)

  2. Invertebrates as Vectors of Infectious Diseases (Molluscs); (01/22/15)

    • [17] The Role of Freshwater Snails in Epidemiology of Human Schistosomiases (15’)

    • [18] Epidemiology of Diseases Caused by Trematodes Parasitizing Liver and Lung Parenchyma: The Role of Freshwater Snails in Transmission of These Parasites (Paragonimus, Fasciola, Clonorchis, Opisthorchis) (15’)

    • [19] Epidemiology of Diseases Caused by Trematodes Parasitizing the Intestine: The Role of Freshwater Snails in Transmission of These Parasites (Fasciolopsis, Echinostoma, Heterophyes, Metagonimus) (15’)

    • [20] The Role of Molluscs in Transmission of Pathogenic Nematodes (Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis) (15’)



[Numbers according to the attendace record]






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