[1]红外动目标识别跟踪系统的dsp+fpga实现




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Space Optical System


246

Author(s): Toselli, I (Toselli, Italo); Andrews, LC (Andrews, Larry C.); Phillips, RL (Phillips, Ronald L.); Ferrero, V (Ferrero, Valter)

Title: Free-space optical system performance for laser beam propagation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence - art. no. 026003

Source: OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 47 (2): 26003-26003 FEB 2008

Abstract:

It is well know that free-space laser system performance is limited by atmospheric turbulence. Most theoretical treatments have been described for many years by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model because of its simplicity. Unfortunately, several experiments have been reported recently that show that the Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric statistics properly, in particular, in portions of the troposphere and stratosphere. We present a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. Using this new spectrum in weak turbulence, we carry out, for a horizontal path, an analysis of long-term beam spread, scintillation index, probability of fade, mean signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and mean bit error rate (BER) as variation of the spectrum exponent. Our theoretical results show that for alpha values lower than alpha=11/3, but not for alpha close to alpha=3, there is a remarkable increase of scintillation and consequently a major penalty on the system performance. However, when alpha assumes a value close to alpha=3 or for alpha values higher than alpha=11/3, scintillation decreases, leading to an improvement on the system performance. (c) 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.


Addresses: Politecn Turin, Opt Commun Grp, I-10128 Turin, Italy

Univ Cent Florida, Dept Math, Orlando, FL 32816 USA

Florida Space Inst, Kennedy Space Ctr, FL 32899 USA

Politecn Turin, Dept Elect Engn, I-10128 Turin, Italy

Reprint Address: TOSELLI, I, POLITECN TURIN, OPT COMMUN GRP, I-10128 TURIN, ITALY

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247

Author(s): Arimondo, E (Arimondo, Ennio); Ertmer, W (Ertmer, Wolfgang); Rasel, EM (Rasel, Ernst M.); Schleich, WP (Schleich, Wolfgang P.)



Title: Atom optics and space physics: A summary of an 'Enrico Fermi' summer school - art. no. 038101

Source: PHYSICA SCRIPTA, 77 (3): 38101-38101 MAR 2008

Abstract:

We describe the scientific content of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi' on atom optics and space physics, organized by the Italian Physical Society in Varenna at Lake Como, Italy, 2 - 13 July 2007.


Addresses: Univ Pisa, Dipartimento Fis E Fermi, I-56127 Pisa, Italy

Leibniz Univ Hannover, Inst Quantenopt, D-30167 Hannover, Germany

Univ Ulm, Inst Quantenopt, D-89081 Ulm, Germany

Reprint Address: ARIMONDO, E, UNIV PISA, DIPARTIMENTO FIS E FERMI, LARGO PONTECORVO 3, I-56127 PISA, ITALY

Author's E-mail: arimondo@df.unipi.it

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248

Author(s): Miyazaki, D (Miyazaki, Daisuke); Ohno, Y (Ohno, Yuji); Matsushita, K (Matsushita, Kenji)



Title: Alignment-free optical modules using solder-bump-bonding technique for free-space optical interconnections

Source: OPTICAL REVIEW, 15 (1): 19-25 JAN-FEB 2008

Abstract:

We propose alignment-free optical modules using a solder-bump-bonding technique for constructing free-space optical interconnection systems without a special alignment procedure. Bonding pads for mounting an optoelectronic device chip are fabricated by exposing a photosensitive resin film to light traveling through the optical system of the module so that the image positions of the bonding pads on both image planes of the optical interconnection system are aligned with each other. A device chip is mounted by solder-bump bonding and is set at a proper position by the surface tension of molten solder. The effectiveness of the technique is verified by constructing alignment-free optical modules. (C) 2008 The Optical Society of Japan.


Addresses: Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Engn, Dept Phys Elect & Informat, Osaka 5588585, Japan

Reprint Address: MIYAZAKI, D, OSAKA CITY UNIV, GRAD SCH ENGN, DEPT PHYS ELECT & INFORMAT, OSAKA 5588585, JAPAN

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249


Author(s): Bonse, J (Bonse, Joern); Bachelier, G (Bachelier, Guillaume); Siegel, J (Siegel, Jan); Solis, J (Solis, Javier); Sturm, H (Sturm, Heinz)

Title: Time- and space-resolved dynamics of ablation and optical breakdown induced by femtosecond laser pulses in indium phosphide - art. no. 054910

Source: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 103 (5): 54910-54910 MAR 1 2008

Abstract:

Femtosecond time-resolved microscopy has been used to analyze the structural transformation dynamics (melting, ablation, and solidification phenomena) induced by single intense 130 fs laser pulses in single-crystalline (100)-indium phosphide wafers in air on a time scale from similar to 100 fs up to 8 ns. In the ablative regime close to the ablation threshold, transient surface reflectivity patterns are observed by fs microscopy on a ps to ns time scale as a consequence of the complex spatial density structure of the ablating material (dynamic Newton fringes). At higher fluences, exceeding six times the ablation threshold, optical breakdown causes another, more violent ablation regime, which reduces the energy deposition depth along with the time of significant material removal. As a consequence, ablation lasts longer in a ring-shaped region around the region of optical breakdown. This leads to the formation of a crater profile with a central protrusion. In the melting regime below the ablation threshold, the melting dynamics of indium phosphide has been quantified and subsequent superficial amorphization has been observed upon solidification on the ns time scale leading to amorphous layer thicknesses of the order of a few tens of nanometers. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics.
Addresses: Max Born Inst Nichtlineare Opt & Kurzzeitspektros, D-12489 Berlin, Germany

CSIC, Inst Opt, Laser Proc Grp, E-28006 Madrid, Spain

Bundesanstalt Mat Forsch & Prufung, D-12205 Berlin, Germany

Univ Lyon 1, Spectrometrie Ion & Mol Lab, CNRS, UMR 5579, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France

Reprint Address: BONSE, J, MAX BORN INST NICHTLINEARE OPT & KURZZEITSPEKTROS, MAX BORN STR 2A, D-12489 BERLIN, GERMANY

Author's E-mail: bonse@mbi-berlin.de

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250


Author(s): Cheng, MK (Cheng, Michael K.); Nakashima, MA (Nakashima, Michael A.); Moision, BE (Moision, Bruce E.); Harrikins, J (Harrikins, Jon)

Title: Optimizations of a hardware decoder for deep-space optical communications

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS, 55 (2): 644-658 MAR 2008

Abstract:

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has developed a capacity approaching modulation and coding scheme that comprises a serial concatenation of an inner accumulate pulse-position modulation (PPM) and an outer convolutional code [or serially concatenated PPM (SCPPM)] for deep-space optical communications. Decoding of this code uses the turbo principle. However, due to the nonbinary property of SCPPM, a straightforward application of classical turbo decoding is very inefficient. Here, we present various optimizations applicable in hardware implementation of the SCPPM decoder. More specifically, we feature a Super Gamma computation to efficiently handle parallel trellis edges, a pipeline-friendly "maxstar top-2" circuit that reduces the max-only approximation penalty, a low-latency cyclic redundancy check circuit for window-based decoders, and a high-speed algorithmic polynomial interleaver that leads to memory savings. Using the featured optimizations, we implement a 6.72 megabits-per-second (Mbps) SCPPM decoder on a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Compared to the current data rate of 256 kilobits per second from Mars, the SCPPM coded scheme represents a throughput increase of more than twenty-six fold. Extension to a 50-Mbps decoder on a board with multiple FPGAs follows naturally. We show through hardware simulations that the SCPPM coded system can operate within 1 dB of the Shannon capacity at nominal operating conditions.
Addresses: CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA

Reprint Address: CHENG, MK, CALTECH, JET PROP LAB, 4800 OAK GROVE DR, PASADENA, CA 91109 USA

Author's E-mail: mkcheng@jpl.nasa.gov

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251

Author(s): Zhang, CX (Zhang Chun-Xi); Tian, HT (Tian Hai-Ting); Li, M (Li Min); Jin, J (Jin Jing); Song, NF (Song Ning-Fang)



Title: Space radiation effect on fibre optical gyroscope control circuit and compensation algorithm

Source: CHINESE PHYSICS B, 17 (2): 573-577 FEB 2008

Abstract:

The process of a gamma-irradiation experiment of fibre optical gyroscope (FOG) control circuit was described, in which it is demonstrated that the FOG control circuit, except for D/A converter, could endure the dose of 10krad with the protection of cabin material. The distortion and drift in D/A converter due to radiation, which affect the performance of FOG seriously, was indicated based on the elemental analysis. Finally, a compensation network based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is proposed and its function is verified by simulation.


Addresses: Beijing Univ Aeronaut & Astronaut, Sch Instrumentat Sci & Optoelect Engn, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China

Reprint Address: ZHANG, CX, BEIJING UNIV AERONAUT & ASTRONAUT, SCH INSTRUMENTAT SCI & OPTOELECT ENGN, BEIJING 100083, PEOPLES R CHINA

Author's E-mail: tsatnt@gmail.com

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252

Author(s): Teitelbaum, ME (Teitelbaum, Michael E.); Yarlagadda, S (Yarlagadda, Shridhar); O'Brien, DJ (O'Brien, Daniel J.); Wetzel, ED (Wetzel, Eric D.); Goossen, KW (Goossen, Keith W.)



Title: Normal incidence free space optical data porting to embedded communication links

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, 31 (1): 32-38 MAR 2008

Abstract:

In this paper, various techniques for normal incidence, free-space optical data porting to embedded data busses are presented. In the first approach, externally powered optical transmitter and receiver devices are coupled to an embedded electrical bus. This embedded link proves to be reliable through environmental and mechanical testing, and demonstrates data transmission up to 10 kHz. A self-powered transceiver is then fabricated and coupled to an optical fiber, showing data transmission up to 1 MHz. Finally, a self-powered bus using a dye-impregnated optical fiber is demonstrated to operate at speeds greater than 15 MHz. All methods explored overcome many of the problems associated with traditional physical connectorization, and are suitable for normal incidence remote querying of embedded passive elements, active devices, sensors, or networks.


Addresses: Univ Delaware, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Ctr Composite Mat, Newark, DE 19716 USA

USA, Res Lab, Aberdeen, MD 21005 USA

Reprint Address: TEITELBAUM, ME, UNIV DELAWARE, DEPT ELECT & COMP ENGN, CTR COMPOSITE MAT, NEWARK, DE 19716 USA

Author's E-mail: mt@udel.edu

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253


Author(s): Deng, XX (Deng, Xiaoxu); Xiao, PP (Xiao, Pingping); Zheng, X (Zheng, Xiang); Cao, ZQ (Cao, Zhuangqi); Shen, QS (Shen, Qishun); Zhu, K (Zhu, Kun); Li, HG (Li, Honggen); Wei, W (Wei, Wei); Xie, SX (Xie, Shixiang); Zhang, ZJ (Zhang, Zhijian)

Title: An electro-optic polymer modulator based on the free-space coupling technique - art. no. 015305

Source: JOURNAL OF OPTICS A-PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS, 10 (1): 15305-15305 JAN 2008

Abstract:

An electro-optic (EO) polymer modulator employing a symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide structure is presented. Based on the free-space coupling technique, the energy of incident light on the metal-cladding is coupled directly from free space into the waveguide without using a prism, grating and other coupling components. An externally applied voltage modulates the reflected light intensity by changing the energy coupling efficiency of the incident light into the waveguide through the refractive index of the EO polymer. The fabricated modulator achieves an 8.2% modulation depth with 10 Vp-p driving voltage at 1 MHz. The device also provides the benefits of simple fabrication and compact size owing to the use of the free-space coupling technique.
Addresses: Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Dept Phys, State Key Lab Adv Opt Commun Syst & Networks, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China

Yichun Univ, Sch Phys Sci & Technol, Yichun 336000, Peoples R China

Fudan Univ, State Key Lab Adv Photon Mat & Dev, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China

Reprint Address: DENG, XX, SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIV, DEPT PHYS, STATE KEY LAB ADV OPT COMMUN SYST & NETWORKS, SHANGHAI 200240, PEOPLES R CHINA

Author's E-mail: mrxxdeng@yahoo.com.cn

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254

Author(s): Popoola, WO (Popoola, W. O.); Ghassernlooy, Z (Ghassernlooy, Z.); Allen, JIH (Allen, J. I. H.); Leitgeb, E (Leitgeb, E.); Gao, S (Gao, S.)



Title: Free-space optical communication employing subcarrier modulation and spatial diversity in atmospheric turbulence channel

Source: IET OPTOELECTRONICS, 2 (1): 16-23 FEB 2008

Abstract:

An expression for the bit error rate of a multiple subcarrier intensity-modulated atmospheric optical communication system employing spatial diversity is derived. Spatial diversity is used to mitigate scintillation caused by atmospheric turbulence, which is assumed to obey log-normal distribution. Optimal but complex maximum ratio, equal gain combining (EGC) and relatively simple selection combining spatial diversity techniques in a clear atmosphere are considered. Each subcarrier is modulated using binary phase shift keying. Laser irradiance is subsequently modulated by a subcarrier signal, and a direct detection PIN receiver is employed (i.e. intensity modulation/direction detection). At a subcarrier level, coherent demodulation is used to extract the transmitted data/information. The performance of on-off-keying is also presented and compared with the subcarrier intensity modulation under the same atmospheric conditions.


Addresses: Northumbria Univ, NCRLab, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England

Inst Broadband Commun, Graz, Tucuman, Austria

Reprint Address: POPOOLA, WO, NORTHUMBRIA UNIV, NCRLAB, NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE, TYNE & WEAR, ENGLAND

Author's E-mail: wasiu.popoola@unn.ac.uk

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255


Author(s): Jafar, M (Jafar, M.); O'Brien, DC (O'Brien, D. C.); Stevens, CJ (Stevens, C. J.); Edwards, DJ (Edwards, D. J.)

Title: Evaluation of coverage area for a wide line-of-sight indoor optical free-space communication system employing coherent detection

Source: IET COMMUNICATIONS, 2 (1): 18-26 JAN 2008

Abstract:

The application of coherent detection to indoor optical free-space communications is considered here. Analytical expressions are derived for a wide line-of-sight (W-LOS) optical link which determine the coverage area and the required photo-detection area given different binary digital transmission schemes and a given bit rate. The coverage area is maximised for systems using both metal-semiconductor-metal (NISM) and PIN photo-detectors. Results show that MSM photo-detectors, due to their inherently lower capacitance per unit photo-detection area, result in a greater coverage area than their PIN counterparts. To demonstrate the viability of implementing coherent detection indoors, a 200 Mb/s LOS optical link which uses coherent detection is also reported.
Addresses: Univ Bath, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Bath BA2 7AY, Avon, England

Univ Oxford, Dept Engn Sci, Oxford OX1 3PJ, England

Reprint Address: JAFAR, M, UNIV BATH, DEPT ELECT & ELECT ENGN, BATH BA2 7AY, AVON, ENGLAND

Author's E-mail: m.jafar@bath.ac.uk

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256


Author(s): Bechou, L (Bechou, L.); Rehioui, O (Rehioui, O.); Deshayes, Y (Deshayes, Y.); Gilard, O (Gilard, O.); Quadri, G (Quadri, G.); Ousten, Y (Ousten, Y.)

Title: Measurement of the thermal characteristics of packaged double-heterostructure light emitting diodes for space applications using spontaneous optical spectrum properties

Source: OPTICS AND LASER TECHNOLOGY, 40 (4): 589-601 JUN 2008

Abstract:

In this paper, the thermal characteristics of packaged infrared double-heterostructure light emitting diode (DH-LED), used in space applications, are measured under conditions that reproduce space environments. The characterisation uses spontaneous optical spectrum characteristics, current-voltage curves and optical power measured under a primary vacuum (< 10(-2) Torr) at temperatures between -30 and 100 degrees C. The investigations have been specifically oriented toward the extraction of junction temperature in the steady-state regime and junction-to-case thermal resistance. A specific model based on semiconductor theory for electrical transport has been used to calculate the shape of the spontaneous emission spectrum between the band-gap energy and higher energies and its change versus temperature. A linear relation between the junction temperature and the dissipated power has been found for various case temperatures appropriately controlled in a LN2 cryostat. These results confirm that thermal behavior of DH-LEDs depends on both environment temperature and dissipated power level in the active zone and that the junction-to-case thermal resistance is not constant over a large range of temperatures, diminishing at higher currents as already reported by recent papers on high brightness DH-LED. Finally, this study could represent a practical non-destructive method providing qualitative information about variations of junction temperature and junction-to-case thermal resistance taking into account an industrial qualification framework approach based on electroluminescence analysis, frequently measured by manufacturers or end-users. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Addresses: Univ Bordeaux 1, UMR CNRS 5218, Lab IMS, F-33405 Talence, France

CNES French Space Agcy, F-31401 Toulouse, France

Reprint Address: BECHOU, L, UNIV BORDEAUX 1, UMR CNRS 5218, LAB IMS, 351 COURS LIBERAT, F-33405 TALENCE, FRANCE

Author's E-mail: laurent.bechou@ims-bordeaux.fr

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257


Author(s): Syms, RRA (Syms, R. R. A.)

Title: Principles of free-space optical microelectromechanical systems

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART C-JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, 222 (1): 1-17 JAN 2008

Abstract:

Optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) combine miniature optical components with precision fixtures, elastic suspensions, and microactuators, and allow complex functionality at low cost. However, the effect of the bounded nature of the beams propagating through the system on design is profound. The current paper reviews the fundamental consequences. Using a Gaussian beam formulation, models of guided modes in gradient index media, bounded beams and imaging components are constructed. Propagation algorithms are described. The alignment tolerances for common component trains such as fibre-to-fibre and beam-to-fibre connections are derived, limits on the curvature of reflecting surfaces are established, the scaling laws of free-space optical MEMS are presented and the effect of beam size on filter performance is clarified. Examples such as variable optical attenuators, optical cross-connect switches, filters and tunable lasers are discussed.
Addresses: Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, EEE Dept, Opt & Semicond Devices Grp, London SW7 2BT, England

Reprint Address: SYMS, RRA, UNIV LONDON IMPERIAL COLL SCI TECHNOL & MED, EEE DEPT, OPT & SEMICOND DEVICES GRP, EXHIBIT RD, LONDON SW7 2BT, ENGLAND

Author's E-mail: r.syms@ic.ac.uk

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258

Author(s): Sandalidis, HG (Sandalidis, H. G.); Tsiftsis, TA (Tsiftsis, T. A.)



Title: Outage probability and ergodic capacity of free-space optical links over strong turbulence

Source: ELECTRONICS LETTERS, 44 (1): 46-U59 JAN 3 2008

Abstract:

The performance of a free-space optical (FSO) communication system under strong turbulence regime that follows the K distribution is evaluated. Some useful channel statistics are derived in closed form and the outage probability and ergodic capacity for a single-input single-output FSO link are evaluated. Numerical examples are further presented to verify the accuracy of the derived mathematical expressions.


Addresses: Univ Cent Greece, Dept Informat Biomed Applicat, GR-35100 Lamia, Greece

Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, WCSG, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece

Reprint Address: SANDALIDIS, HG, UNIV CENT GREECE, DEPT INFORMAT BIOMED APPLICAT, PAPASSIOPOULOU 2-4, GR-35100 LAMIA, GREECE

Author's E-mail: sandalidis@hotmail.com

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259


Author(s): Kildishev, AV (Kildishev, Alexander V.); Shalaev, VM (Shalaev, Vladimir M.)

Title: Engineering space for light via transformation optics

Source: OPTICS LETTERS, 33 (1): 43-45 JAN 1 2008

Abstract:

Conceptual studies and numerical simulations are performed for imaging devices that transform a near-field pattern into magnified far-zone images and are based on high-order spatial transformation in cylindrical domains. A lens translating a near-field pattern from an almost circular input boundary onto a magnified far-field image at a flat output boundary is considered. The lens is made of a metamaterial with anisotropic permittivity and permeability both depending on a single '' scaling '' parameter of the transformation. Open designs of the lens with a truncated body (3/4-body and 1/4-body lenses) are suggested and analyzed. It is shown that the ideal full lens and the 3/4-body lens produce identical images. Numerical simulations of 1/4-body designs indicate that further truncation of the lens could limit its performance. Alight concentrator '' focusing '' far-zone fields into a nanometer-scale area is also considered. (c) 2007 Optical Society of America.
Addresses: Purdue Univ, Birck Nanotechnol Ctr, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA

Purdue Univ, Sch Elect & Comp Engn, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA

Reprint Address: KILDISHEV, AV, PURDUE UNIV, BIRCK NANOTECHNOL CTR, W LAFAYETTE, IN 47907 USA

Author's E-mail: a.v.kildishev@ieee.org

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260


Author(s): Phillips, DJ (Phillips, Dane J.); Laycock, RL (Laycock, Rustin L.); Cole, ST (Cole, Spencer T.); Walker, WW (Walker, Wesley W.); Moultrie, SD (Moultrie, Sean D.); Reinhardt, JC (Reinhardt, John C.); Fork, RL (Fork, Richard L.); Howell, JT (Howell, Joe T.)

Title: Technology demonstrations and flight experiments validating an optical energy infrastructure for Earth-Moon space

Source: ACTA ASTRONAUTICA, 62 (2-3): 185-191 JAN-FEB 2008

Abstract:

We identify four technical advances that appear necessary to producing an optical power infrastructure in Earth-Moon space as well as specific experiments and demonstrations designed to validate those technical advances. The four advances are: (1) the ability to concentrate sunlight to an integrated power density per unit area that approximates the saturation intensity for a useful laser transition (e.g., 4 kW/cm(2) for Nd:YAG) in a volume that matches the lowest order Gaussian mode of free space in a near confocal resonator of practical dimensions (e.g. a resonator a few meters in length) having a cross sectional area adequate to produce substantial coherent output power (e.g., 100 kW or more); (2) provide a means of removing waste heat from the laser gain medium in a manner that reduces thermally induced distortion and stress to acceptable levels; (3) identify a specific realizable near confocal resonator of practical dimensions that will selectively and efficiently couple the solar pump power into a lowest order Gaussian mode having the needed cross sectional area; and (4) provide detailed design requirements for a photovoltaic receiver that will transform monochromatic optical power in space into electrical power at efficiencies that approach the theoretical maximum allowed for such devices (e.g. > 90%). (c) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Addresses: Univ Alabama, Laser Sci & Engn Grp, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA

NASA, George C Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Adv Projects Team, Huntsville, AL 35812 USA

Reprint Address: FORK, RL, UNIV ALABAMA, LASER SCI & ENGN GRP, HUNTSVILLE, AL 35899 USA

Author's E-mail: forkr@uah.edu


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