1. Unlike other phyla that belong to the subkingdom Metazoa, porifera belong to the subkingdom ________________.
2. Porifera do not have germ layers because ___________________________________.
3. Porifera have a ____________ level of organization and do not have ______________ systems.
4. This term is used to describe animals without a body cavity: ___________________.
5. This type of body plan has radial canals: _______________
6. The leuconoid body plan is the most complex form because _____________________ _______________________________________________________________________.
7. The sponges in the subgroup _____________ may have any of the three body plan types.
8. Hexactinellida may not be able to contract, but they can defend themselves by ______ _____________________________________.
9. The sponges in the subgroup ___________________ prefer shallow waters over great depths.
10. Sclerospongiae are less well-known because _______________________________.
11. Sclerospongiae are composed of three structural materials: ____________________,
____________________, and ___________________.
12. Circle: Most porifera are: marine / freshwater
13. True or False: Porifera always live in colonies because they cannot function independently. _____________
14. Porifera are sessile: this means ________________________________________.
15. An elevated body form is advantageous because _____________________________
16. Porifera may reproduce asexually in one of three ways: __________________,
________________, or _________________.
17. Porifera are __________________: they have both male and female sexual organs and can act as either gender in the sexual reproduction process.
18. Water enters a sponge through pores called ____________ and exits through openings called ____________. The water flow is ____________________ (one-way).
19. The ____________________ is one example of a sponge that does not use suspension feeding.
20. Porifera have the ability to ______________ themselves if their cells get separated.
21. Label the following diagram with the appropriate letters using the descriptions provided below:
a) Choanocyte – has a wavy-like protrusion used to propel water through the sponge
b) Spicule – serves as structural support
c) Pinacocyte – lines the outer surface of the sponge
d) Mesohyl – a gelatinous substance found between the two cellular layers of the sponge
e) Spongocoel – the central chamber