1. Introduction 5

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Guide on use of FTP and FTP servers at WWW centres

(Aug.11Sep. 13, 2006)

World Meteorological Organization

1.Introduction 5

1.1 Purpose of this guide 5

1.2 Scope 5

1.3 Audience 5

1.4 Terminology and Conventions 5

2. Basics on the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 6

2.1 What is the FTP 6

2.2 How FTP works 6

2.3 Control Connection 7

2.4 Data Connection 9

2.5 Remarks on the FTP 10

3. Designing FTP Service 10

3.1 FTP Solutions 10

3.2 Requirements 11

3.3 Performance 12

3.4 Reliability 12

3.5 Security Measures 15

3.6 IP Address and Host Name 15

3.7 Platforms 16

4. Management of the FTP Server 17

4.1 Execution Environment (Run Mode on the Unix like OS) 17

4.2 Environment of Service 18

4.3 Directory Structure 18

4.4 Name of the Files 19

4.5 User Account 19

4.6 Security and Availability 20

4.7 Effect of Firewall and Proxy 20

4.8 Log File 21

5. FTP Server Software 21

5.1 wu-ftpd (http://www.wu-ftpd.org/) 21

5.2 proftpd (http://www.proftpd.org/) 22

5.3 vsftpd(http://vsftpd.beasts.org/) 22

5.4 Internet Information server (IIS) 22

5.5 guildFTPd(http://www.guildftpd.com/) 22

6. FTP Clients 22

6.1 Built in FTP Clients 22

6.2 GUI Clients 23

6.3 Free client suit for automatic operation 23

7. Tips and Hints on FTP Service 23

7.1 Login shells 23

7.2 Logrotation 24

8. Step-ups 24

8.1 File Transfer Protocols 24

8.2 Other Method 25

9. Common to the Establishment of an FTP Server 26

9.1 Presuppositions to the examples 26

9.2 Process to set up FTP server software 26

9.3 Create a user account 27

9.4 Start-up and check 28

10. Resources and References 29

10.1 Useful Free Stuff 29

10.2 Other Info 29

Appendix A. Example on establishing a proFTPd server 30

A.1 Introduction 30

A.1.1 Basics on the configuration 30

A.1.2 Run mode 30

A.2 Basic Configuration 31

A.3 Security Concerns 33

A.4 Performance Control 35

A.4.1 Total throughput 35

A.4.2 Limitation of the number of simultaneous logins 35

A.5 Data Policy 36

A.5.1 Control of file accessing 36

A.6 Other Tips 37

Appendix B. Example on establishing a vsFTPD server 39

B.1 Introduction 39

B.1.1 Basics on the configuration 39

B.1.2 Prerequisits 39

B.1.3 Run mode 40

B.1.4 Category of Users 41

B.2 Basic Configuration 41

B.3 Security Concerns 42

B.3.1 Strategy of the service 42

B.3.2 IP access control 42

B.3.3 Local Users 42

B.3.4 Anonymous Users 43

B.4 Performance Control 43

B.5 Data Policy 43

B.6 Other Tips 44

B.6.1 Logging 44

B.6.2 Timer 44

Appendix C. Example on establishing a GuildFTP server 44

C.1 Introduction 44

C.1.1 Installation 44

C.1.2 Start up 45

C.1.3 Main Window 46

C.1.4 Basics on the configuration 47

C.1.5 User Accounts 48

C.2 Accounts Window 48

C.2.1 Add a new group 48

C.2.2 Add a new user 49

C.2.3 Edit/delete a user/group 50

C.3 Account Options & Paths Window 50

C.3.1 Paths tab 50

C.3.2 Options tab 51

C.4 Connections Window 51

C.4.1 Current Connections tab 51

C.4.2 Connection Graph tab 52

C.4.3 Past Connections tab 52

C.5 Activity Window 52

C.5.1 Downloads tab and Uploads tab 52

C.5.2 Spy tab 52

C.6 Other Tips 53

C.6.1 IP Filtering 53

C.6.2 Ban IP 53

C.6.3 Event Messages 54

WMO Guide on use of FTP and FTP servers at WWW centres

  1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose of this guide

  This Guide has developed as a supplement to the "WMO GUIDE ON INTERNET PRACTICES" intended to provide introductory information on establishing an FTP server at small centres that plans to disseminate or exchange meteorological data through communication network such as the GTS, Internet, or local/wide area networks, but have limited capability and/or human resources to establish such an FTP server.

The contents of the Guide are mainly based on the experiences of advanced GTS centres those are already established FTP servers and make use of the service for data/products dissemination or exchange operationally.

1.2 Scope

  The information contained in the Guide is referring to issues on establishing an FTP server on a small platform such as a personal computer (PC), which covers designing, installation, configuration, create new user accounts, making directory structure, etc.  The PC shall be built up and configured correctly so that it could be communicate with other computes, through a TCP/IP network in advance. The Guide doesn't include generic information on how to setting up a PC, such as how to build hardware, install an operating system and connect to network, etc. Although keeping security is very important portion of server management to maintain reliable and stable services, detailed security issues are not part of this guide and hoped to refer to other Guides.

1.3 Audience

  The Guide has prepared to support centres where few human resources are available for establishing servers that serve meteorological data through the Internet or the GTS. The reader of the Guide is assumed to have already read the "WMO GUIDE ON INTERNET PRACTICES", and have experience on using PCs and Operating Systems. Also a PC is installed on a TCP/IP network right way is assumed.

1.4 Terminology and Conventions

  To clarify descriptions and to avoid confusion or misunderstandings, following conventions are introduced in the examples.

1.4.1 Terminology

The FTP is based on the Client/Server Model on the network but terminology of the definition in the RFC959 uses the word User instead of Client. In this guide, both of the word User and Client are used as practically and express same meanings.

1.4.2 Conventions

  1. An example of operation is shown in a yellow box, which includes prompt messages, command texts, reply messages, etc. In the box, underlined-red string indicates commands or other texts typed by the user. Green and blue indicate prompt or reply messages from local computer and from remote servers respectively.


$ date

Wed Sep 1 13:28:30 GMT 2004


  1. An example of contents or text strings written in a file is shown in a grey box.



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