1. a patient with heart failure induced by a long-term coronary vessel disorder can be administered a drug produced out of the following herbal raw material: A




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1. A patient with heart failure induced by a long-term coronary vessel disorder can be administered a drug produced out of the following herbal raw material:

A Hawthorn

B Calendula flowers

C Ginseng roots

D Aralia roots

E Berberis roots


Correct answer – A. Hawthorn (Crataegus sanguinea) contains flavonoids and possesses mild cardiotonic activity. Flowers and fruits can be used for the treatment of first stages of heart failure.

2. A patient came to a drugstore and ordered cowberry leaves. Which of the available herbal raw materials can be offered as a substitute?

A Folium Uvae ursi

B Rizoma Calami

C Rizoma et radix Sanquisorbae officinalis

D Herba Achilleae millefolii

E Radix Taraxaci officinalis


Correct answer – A. Cowberry (Vaccinium vitis idaea) and bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva ursi) contain phenolic glycoside arbutin and leaves of these medicinal plants can be used for the treatment of urinary system infections.

3. A pharmacy depot received a batch of common plantain leaves. According to the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia, this herbal raw material is of adequate quality if it contains the following active substances:

A Polysaccharides

B Flavonoids

C Tannins

D Anthracene derivatives

E Essential oils


Correct answer – A. Common plantain (Plantago major) contains mucilage that belongs to the class Polysaccharides. Leaves of common plantain are used as medicinal plant raw material.

4. Preparations on the basis of dandelion roots are recommended for better digestion and as a choleretic because this herbal raw material contains:

A Bitters

B Essential oil

C Balsams

D Saponins

E Flavonoids


Correct answer – A. Roots of dandelion (Radices Taraxaci officinalis) contain bitters (iridoids) that stimulate salivary and digestive glands, bile secretion and improve digestion.

5. Preparations made of ginseng roots have tonic and adaptogenic properties, improve mental and physical performance. If the ginseng tincture cannot be found in a pharmacy, it can be substituted by the analogous preparations made of the following raw material:

A Radices Eleutherococci

B Radices Valerianae

C Radices Inulae

D Radices Ononidis

E Radices Rhei


Correct answer – A. Siberian ginseng roots (Radices Eleuterococci senticosi) contain lingans and show tonic and adaptogenic effects. Because of the same effect phytomedicines at the base of Radices Eleuterococci can substitute ginseng roots.

6. Coltsfoot preparations are used for upper airways treatment. During procurement of this herbal raw material the following admixture may appear:

A Great bur (Arctium lappa)

B Common plantain (Plantago major)

C Spring adonis (Adonis vernalis)

D Marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis)

E Pot marjoram (Origanum vulgare)


Correct answer – A. Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) and great bur (Arctium lappa) have the similar external morphological features. Because of that great bur leaves may appear as admixture to the coltsfoot leaves.

7. If the internal surface of buckthorn rind is moistened with 5% alkaline solution, it becomes cherry-red colouring. This is the evidence of presence of the following substance:

A Anthracene derivatives

B Alkaloids

C Saponins

D Flavonoids

E Tannins


Correct answer – A. For determination of anthracene derivatives in buckthorn rind the histochemical reaction is used. Appearing of cherry-red colour on the internal surface of rind after the action of alkaline solution proves the presence of anthracene derivatives.

8. Medicinal plant Rhamnus cathartica is used as a laxative. What part of this plant is used as herbal raw material?

A Fruits

B Leaves

C Rind

D Roots

E Shoots


Correct answer – A. Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) has fruits as medicinal plant raw material that is rich in anthracene derivatives.

9. Leaves of belladonna, henbane and datura containing tropane alkaloids must be stored according to the following list requirements:

A B list (these drug substances require caution in handling, storage or use)

B A list (poisonous drug substances)

C General sales list

D Essential oil materials list

E List of substances equivalent to narcotics


Correct answer – A. Medicinal plant raw materials which contain tropane alkaloids must be stored according to the B list.

10. Specify the herbal raw material with high concentration of carotenoids which is used for production of phytopreparations:

A Sea-buckthorn fruits

B Currant leaflets

C Caseweed grass

D Wild strawberry leaves

E Parsley roots


Correct answer – A. Sea buckthorn fruits (Fructus Hippophaes rhamnoides) are rich in carotenoids including β-carotene (pro-vitamin A).

11. One of the ways to derive essential oil is enfleurage, or maceration. Essential oil can be derived by enfleurage from the following herbal raw material:

A Petals of Damascus rose

B Lemon skin

C Coriander fruits

D Mint leaves

E Camomile flowers


Correct answer – A. Petals of Damascus rose (Petala Rosae damascenae) contain volatile oil localized in glandular spots. That is why enfleurage is the most available method for the obtaining of rose volatile oil.

12. Select a reagent that should be applied by an analytical chemist in order to detect alkaloids in the herbal raw material:

A Dragendorff reagent

B Bromine water

C Alkaline solution

D Stahl's reagent

E Trim-Hill reagent



Correct answer – A. Dragendorf reagent is general precipitating reagent for detection of alkaloid presence; it consists of Bi(NO3)2 in KI. The result of reaction is red colour appearing.


13. Preparations of sorrel roots can have both a laxative and astringent effect. This is due to the presence of the following biologically active substances:

A Anthracene derivatives and tannins

B Flavonoids and essential oils

C Essential and fatty oils

D Coumarins and phenol glycosides

E Iridoids and vitamins


Correct answer – A. Due to the content of anthracene derivatives preparations of sorrel roots in large doses show laxative effect and due to the content of tannins in small doses they have astringent effect.


14. Calamus rhizome is likely to be confused with some other plant rhizome that can be found as an admixture in the herbal raw material. Specify the most likely admixture:

A Iris rhizome

B Valerian rhizome

C Elecampane roots

D Althaea roots

E Phlojodicarpus roots


Correct answer – A. Correct answer – A. Calamus (Acorus ca;amus) and iris have the similar external morphological features of rhizomes. Because of that iris rhizome may appear as admixture to the calamus rhizome.


15. Tannins can be used as an antidote for alkaloid poisoning. What herbal remedy should be applied in case of such intoxication:

A Cinquefoil root

B Calamus rhizome

C Althaea root

D Rhizome and roots of madder

E Elecampane root


Correct answer – A. Cinquefoil root (Common tormentil (cinquefoil) – Potentilla erecta (Potentilla tormentilla)) contains tannins which are able to precipitate alkaloids.


16. Tannins have astringent effect and are used for treatment of colitis, enterocolitis, diarrhea. What herbal raw material contains a lot of tannins?

A Fructus Myrtilli

B Fructus Sambucci nigri

C Fructus Ribes nigri

D Fructus Rhamni catharticae

E Fructus Frangulae


Correct answer – A. Bilberry fruits (blueberry fruits – Fructus Myrtilly) contain about 12% of tannins.


17. Emodin, an anthracene derivative, has purgative effect. Large quantities of anthracene-derived groups of emodin are contained in the fruits of the following plant:

A Buckthorn

B Elder (Sambucus)

C Blackcurrant

D Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus)

E Alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus)


Correct answer – A. Common buckthorn fruits (Fructus Rhamnicatharticae) are rich in anthracene derivatives of emodin group and show purgative effect.


18. Cardioglycosides of Adonis vernalis are used for heart failure treatment. This plant raw material should be stored:

A According to the list B

B According to the list A

C Under normal conditions

D Protected from CO2

E In metal containers


Correct answer – A. Medicinal plant raw materials which contain cardiosteroids must be stored according to the list B, except Semina Strophanthi which are stored according to the list A. Spring Pheasant’s eye herb (spring Adonis herb – Herba Adonidis vernalis) must be stored according to the list B.


19. The possible admixture in the crop of raw coltsfoot leaves (Tussilago farfara) is the leaf of:

A Cotton burdock (Arctium tomentosum)

B Common plantain

C Nettle

D Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis)

E Primula officinalis


Correct answer – A. Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) and cotton burdock (Arctium tormentosum) have the similar external morphological features. Because of that cotton burdock leaves may appear as admixture to the coltsfoot leaves.


20. In order to determine the purity a drop of lavender essential oil was applied on a strip of filter paper and warmed up in the stream of warm air. Some time later the stain increased in diameter. What impurity substance was found in the lavender oil?

A Fatty or mineral oil

B Phenol

C Ethanol

D Acetone

E Diethyl ether


Correct answer – A. Several points of differentiation exist between volatile oils and fixed oils. Volatile oils can be distilled from their natural sources by water steam; they do not consist of glycerol esters of fatty acids. Being placed on paper strip volatile oils volatilize without leaving greasy spots in contrast to fatty oils. Fixed and mineral oils in mix with volatile oils change physical properties of volatile oils and leave greasy stain on the paper. Pure volatile oil must be evaporated completely.


21. A pharmacy received a batch of raw material - chamomile flowers. How should this material be stored?

A Separately from all other kinds of raw material

B According to the list B requirements

C According to the list A requirements

D As a narcotic raw material

E In a light room


Correct answer – A. Chamomile flowers (Flores Chamomillae recutitae) contain volatile oil and must be stored separately from all other kinds of raw material as volatile oils containing raw material to avoid mix of odours.


22. Underground organs of medicinal plants that accumulate the most of active substances should be collected:

A After the seeds have ripened and the overground parts died off

B At the flowering stage

C During the green fruiting

D At the budding stage

E At the stem extension stage


Correct answer – A. Underground organs of medicinal plants (roots, rhizomes, rhizomes and roots, rhizomes with roots) should be collected after vegetation when they accumulate large amounts of biologically active substances.


23. Styles of maize with stigmata containing fatty acids, vitamins, essential oils, saponins and other substances are used as:

A Diuretic and choleretic

B Sedative and anticonvulsant

C Cardiotonic and antiarrhythmic

D Expectorant and antibechic

E Bactericidal and astringent


Correct answer – A. Styles of maize with stigmata (corn silk - Style cum stigmatis Zeae maydis) show diuretic and choleretic (bile expelling) properties.


24. Yellow gentian contains bitter glycosides. Raw material of this plant is recommended for production of drugs with the following effect:

A Stimulates appetite

B Tonic

C Diuretic

D Hepatoprotective

E Venotonic


Correct answer – A. Yellow gentian roots (Radices Gentianae luteae) contain bitter glycosides (Iridoids) which stimulate salivary and digestive glands, bile secretion, stimulate appetite and improve digestion.


25. It is necessary to analyze herbal raw material in form of black glossy drupes 6-8 mm in diameter, with a large, firm, globular, light brown kernel containing one seed. The drupes have sweet and slightly astringent taste. This herbal raw material should be identified as fruits of:

A Bird cherry

B Blueberry

C Black chokeberry

D Buckthorn

E Hawthorn


Correct answer – A. This description of plant raw material is typical to bird cherry fruits (Fructus Padi racemosae) which contain tannins.


26. Having ascertained that the quality of raw material meets the requirements of the analytical normative documentation the quality control department should issue a document. Specify this document:

A Certificate of analysis

B Pharmacopoeia entry

C Order

D Request

E Standard


Correct answer – A. Control department gives the certificate of analysis after investigation of quality of plant material according to the analytical normative documentation.


27. Preparations of common valerian are used in medical practice as sedative drugs. The main feature that allows to distinguish valerian from the admixtures is:

A Specific odor

B No specific odor

C Specific taste

D Specific color of raw materials

E Stems remains


Correct answer – A. Common valerian rhizomes with roots (Rhizomata cum radicibus Valerianae officinalis) contain volatile oil containing bornyl isovalerate and bornyl acetate and have specific strong odor.


28. One of the methods of quantitative analysis of active substances in the raw material is the biological standardization. It can be applied with the following group of biologically active substances:

A Cardiac glycosides

B Alkaloids

C Fatty oils

D Tannins

E Mucilages


Correct answer – A. Biological standardization on laboratory animals can be applied with cardiac glycosides due to their specific strong influence on heart muscle.


29. A phytopreparation "Flacarbinum" has spasmolytic, anti-inflammatory and antiulcer effect. This preparation is produced out of the following plant:

A Licorice (Glycyrrhiza)

B Jacob's ladder blue (Polemonium caeruleum)

C Buckeye (Aesculus)

D Mountain angelica (Aralia mandshurica)

E Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis)


Correct answer – A. Licorice roots (Radices Glycyrrhizae) contain saponins and flavonoids and serve as source of preparation “Flacarbinum” with antiulcer effect.


30. Essential oil of rose is used as an anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic agent. It is localized in the following excretory organs:

A Glandular spots

B Essential oil glandules

C Essential oil conceptacles

D Secretory cells

E Glandular hairs


Correct answer – A. Essential oil of rose (Olea aetherea Rosae damascenae) is localized in external receptacles - glandular spots.


31. Styles of maize with stigmata containing fatty acids, vitamins, essential oils, saponins and other substances are used as:

A Diuretic and choleretic drug

B Expectorant and antitussive drug

C Bactericidal and astringent drug

D Sedative and anticonvulsive drug

E Cardiotonic and antiarrhythmic drug


Correct answer – A. Styles of maize with stigmata (corn silk - Style cum stigmatis Zeae maydis) show diuretic and choleretic (bile expelling) properties.


32. The main active components of hawthorn berries are flavonoids. What is their pharmacological effect?

A Hypotensive and sedative

B Laxative and sedative

C Tonic and antispasmodic

D Diuretic and styptic

E Antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory


Correct answer – A. Flavonoids of hawthorn berries (Fructus Crataegi) cause hypotensive and sedative effects.


33. Fatty oil containing unsaturated fatty acids are used for atherosclerosis prevention. What herbal raw material contains such fatty oil?

A Cucurbit seeds

B Buckhorn plantain (Plantago lanceolata) seeds

C Chestnut (Castanea) seeds

D Parsnip fruitages

E Scurfy pea (Psoralea) fruitages


Correct answer – A. Among the given samples cucurbit seeds (pumpkin seeds – Semina Cucurbitae) contain fatty oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids which are useful for atherosclerosis prevention.


34. Fatty oil containing unsaturated fatty acids is used for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Specify the herbal raw material used for oil production:

A Seeds of flax

B Seeds of fennelflower

C Fruits of dill

D Fruits of black chokeberry

E Hawthorn berries


Correct answer – A. Among the given samples flax seeds (Semina Lini) contain fatty oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids which are useful for atherosclerosis prevention.


35. A storehouse received a batch of althaea roots. For its verification a drop of ammonia solution was applied upon the root section; the spot of section turned yellow. This is the evidence of presence of the following substance:

A Mucilage

B Tannins

C Gum

D Pectins

E Vitamin C


Correct answer – A. Marshmallow roots (Radices Althaeae) contain mucilage and appearing of yellow colouring after the treatment with alkali solution prove the presence of this polysaccharide.


36. Upper airways diseases can be treated by means of herbal raw materials containing mucilage. The plant source of this compound class is:

A Radix Althaeae

B Radix Inulae

C Radix Ipecacuanhae

D Radix Rhodiolae

E Radix Belladonnae


Correct answer – A. Marshmallow roots (Radices Althaeae) contain polysaccharide mucilage.


37. The main active components of senna leaves and fruits are sennosides A, B, C, D. They relate to the following class of biologically active substances:

A Anthracene derivatives

B Phenolic acids

C Flavonoids

D Iridoids

E Thioglycosides


Correct answer – A. Senna leaves and fruits (cassia leaves and fruits – Folia et fructus Sennae acutifoliae, Folia et fructus Cassiae acutifoliae) contain senosides that belong to the anthracene derivatives.


38. Preparations containing cardiosteroids are produced out of the following herbal raw material:

A Herba Convallariae

B Cortex Quercus

C Radix Taraxaci

D Folia Ficusi Caricae

E Folia Sennae


Correct answer – A. Lily-of-the-valley herb (Herba Convallariae) contains cardiosteroids and is the source of cardiotonic preparations.


39. A laboratory received some herbal raw material for analysis. It is a composition of ovoid-pointed leaves up to 25 cm long and 20 cm wide; the leaf base is cuneate, the leaf edge is emarginate, The cutting is long and cylindric. The leaf venation is pinnatisect; the midrib and the first-order veins project significantly on the inferior surface of the leaf. The superior leaf surface is dark green, the inferior surface is light green. The plant has a weak narcotic smell. The taste cannot

be determined. The plant is poisonous! The described herbal raw material relates to the following plant:



A Datura stramonium

B Passiflora incarnata

C Chelidonium majus

D Vinca minor

E -


Correct answer – A. This description of plant raw material is typical to jimsonweed (Stramonium) (Folia Daturae stramonii) which contain tropane alkaloids.


40. Tanning agents of silverweed roots and rhizomes are used as an astringent. What species of silverweed is pharmacopoeial?

A Potentilla erecta

B Potentilla argentea

C Potentilla pilosa

D Potentilla impolita

E Potentilla anserina


Correct answer – A. Potentilla erecta is the pharmacopoeial species of silverweed and roots of this plant are rich in tannins.


41. Admixtures can get into the herbal raw material during harvesting, drying and primary processing. Mineral admixtures include:

A Sand, earth, stones

B Metal objects

C Other similar plants

D Droppings of birds and rodents

E Other organs of the same plant


Correct answer – A. Sand, earth and stones are mineral admixtures (impurities) which can get into herbal raw material during harvesting, drying and primary processing.


42. Some domestic and foreign hepatoprotective activity preparation are made of holy thistle bearing. Purity of this material is determined by the content of:

A Flavolignan

B Coumarins

C Alkaloids

D Vitamins

E Terpenoids


Correct answer – A. Holly thistle fruits (Fructus Silybi mariani) contain flavolignans and are used as hepatoprotectors.


43. Preparations made out of eleutherococcus roots and rhizomes are administered as a tonic and adaptogenic drug. If these preparations cannot be found in a pharmacy, they can be substituted by the analogous preparations made of the following raw material:

A Ginseng roots

B Elecampane roots

C Rhizomes and roots of valerian

D Polemonium roots

E Acorus calamus roots


Correct answer – A. Siberian ginseng roots (Radices Eleuterococci senticosi) contain lingans and show tonic and adaptogenic effects. Ginseng roots (Radices Ginseng) are rich in triterpene saponins and show the same effect. Because of the same effects phytomedicines at the base of ginseng rots can substitute Siberian ginseng roots.


44. A biennial or perennial plant from the Apiaceae family has a blue-grey stem branching in its lower part. Its leaves are also blue-grey, finely dissected, with the ultimate filiform segments. The flowers are yellow, in compound umbels. Its fruit is used for production of "dill water". What plant is it?

A Foeniculum vulgare

B Carum carvi

C Petroselium crispum

D Coriandrum sativum

E Conium maculatum


Correct answer – A. This description of plant raw material is typical to fennel fruits (Fructus Foeniculi) which are rich in volatile oil.


45. On the base of licorice root different drug dosage forms are produced, notably tablets, powders, syrups, teas. The only unused form is injection solution. Licorice roots exhibit haemolytic properties typical for the following active substances:

A Saponins

B Alkaloids

C Essential oils

D Iridoids

E Polysaccharides


Correct answer – A. Licorice roots (Radices Glycyrrhizae) contain saponins. Saponins have haemolytic and high surface activity.


46. A teenager with hyporexia has been recommended to drink medicinal herbal tea of the following composition: Herba Absinthii, Herba Millefolii. Specify the characteristic microscopic features of Artemisia absinthium, which indicate its presence in the herb mixture:

A T-shaped hairs along the leaf edge

B Simple and capitate hairs

C Branched, simple and ciliated hairs

D Retor-shaped hairs

E Branched and capitate hairs


Correct answer – A. This microscopic description of plant raw material is typical to wormwood leaf (Folium Artemisiae absinthii).


47. Tincture of what medicinal plant can be applied as a tonic?

A Rhodiola rosea

B Achillea millefolium

C Orthosiphon stamineus

D Digitalis purpurea

E Robinia pseudacacia


Correct answer – A. Snowdon rose (rhodiola) rhizome and roots (Rhizomata et radices Rhodiolae roseae) contain phenolic glycosides and show tonic properties.


48. A laboratory received some herbal raw material for analysis. The plant had flowerheads up to 4 cm in diameter; the marginal flowers were agamic, blue, and funnel-shaped; the inner flowers were bisexual, purple, and tubular. What plant are these features typical for?

A Centaurea cyanus

B Solidago virgaurea

C Polygonum persicaria

D Scutellaria baicalensis

E Viola tricolor


Correct answer – A. This description is typical to corneflower (Bachelor’s button) flowers (Flores Centaureae cyani) which contain flavonoids.


49. Restharrow (Ononis) root is used for production of a tincture applied for treatment of haemorrhoidal haemorrhages. Isoflavonoids can be identified in the raw material by means of:

A Chromatographic method

B Cyanidin test

C Hemolytic index

D Biological standardization

E Foam number


Correct answer – A. Restharrow roots (Radices Ononidis arvensis) contain isoflavonoids which can be detected by means of chromatographic methods.


50. Hawthorn flowers are used for production of cardiotonic drugs. During procurement of this crude drug the flowers of the following plant can appear in it:

A Blackthorn

B Buckthorn

C Bird-cherry

D Brier

E Elder


Correct answer – A. Hawthorn (Crataegus sanguinea) and blackthorn have the similar external morphological features of flowers. Because of that blackthorn flowers may appear as admixture to the hawthorn.


51. Common juniper is applied as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory and cholagogic agent. This plant gives the following medicinal raw material:

A Fruits

B Sprouts

C Leaves

D Roots

E Seeds


Correct answer – A. Common juniper (Juniperus communis) have the fruits as medicinal plant raw material which contain volatile oils.


52. A pharmacy procured common origanum. What drying conditions should be applied for producing high quality crude drug?

A 35-40oC

B 80-90oC

C 60-70oC

D 50-60oC

E 70-80oC


Correct answer – A. Common origanum (pot marjoram) herb (Herba Origani vulgaris) contain volatile oil and must be dried at the temperature not higher than 40°C to avoid evaporation (volatilization) of volatile oil.



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