屏東縣低海拔地區自由放養家貓捕獵野生動物之探討 Preys Brought Home by Free-ranging




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屏東縣低海拔地區自由放養家貓捕獵野生動物之探討

Preys Brought Home by Free-ranging



Domestic Cats(Felis catus) in Low-altitude Village in Ping-tung, Taiwan
研究生:郭智筌 Kuo, Chih-Chuan
指導教授:孫元勳 Sun, Yuan-Hsun

【摘要】

本研究於2004年12月至2005年3月,和6月在屏東縣7個山地鄉村進行養貓戶調查,並邀請飼主參與為期13個月(2005年3月至2006年3月)貓捕獲帶回獵物的收集或紀錄,以探討低海拔村莊自由放養家貓捕獲獵物物種組成和各獵物類型被捕獲的比例與季節、時段的關連性,並提出減少自由放養家貓捕獵野生動物的管理方式。

訪查到83位飼養戶,自願參與者共有27戶,44隻自由放養家貓。其中,有1年以上獵物收集期的有23隻貓;半年多的有13隻;不到半年的有8隻貓。總計回收542筆獵物,包含哺乳動物3目10種,鳥類5目17種,爬蟲類2目4科7種,兩棲類1目2種,昆蟲類9目以及其它物種4目5種。就收集滿1年的貓隻而言,總數244筆獵物下,平均每隻貓1年最少捕獲10.6項獵物,捕獵隻數範圍為0-40隻。捕獲獵物類型比例上,小型哺乳動物(46.31%)居冠,其次是鳥類(24.18%),然後是爬蟲類(13.52%)和昆蟲類(13.52%),兩棲類最少(0.82%)和其它動物則佔1.64%。

哺乳類獵物裡,溝鼠(Rattus norvegeicus)和小黃腹鼠(Rattus losea)是主要捕獲物種,其次是臭鼩(Suncus murinus);鳥類部分,主要物種是麻雀(Passer montanus),其餘物種比例均少於10%。爬蟲類裡,紀錄到蝎虎(Hemidactylus frenatus)比例最多,其次是長尾南蜥(Mabuya longicaudata)。昆蟲類,以住家周圍的蜚蠊目被捕獲比例最多。

貓捕獲的獵物比例在季節上有顯著不同。春、夏天捕獵帶回的獵物數量最多,到了冬天捕獲數量最少。哺乳類一年四季都有被捕獲,且沒有季節差別;鳥類在春、夏季被捕獲的比例比秋、冬天來得多;爬蟲類和昆蟲類同樣是在夏天被捕獲比例最多。白天貓捕獲的獵物比例顯然高於夜晚,主要捕獵時段在6-12點和18-24點。各獵物類型被捕獲比例和時段有關。哺乳類被捕獲最多的時段是在晚上18-24點;鳥類在上午6-12點;爬蟲類也是上午時段。

綜合上述結果,本文認為管理貓隻活動時段是可以達到減少野生動物被捕獲的數量。其中,減少貓隻於春天和夏天在白天外出的時間是可以減低鳥類和爬蟲類被捕獲的數量。

關鍵字:保育、寵物、亞熱帶、外來種、掠食作用
Abstract

To determine the temporal patterns of prey composition and number brought back home by free-ranging domestic cats at low altitude villages, cat owners in seven townships in Pingtung County during December 2004 and March 2005 and in June, 2005 was investigated. Volunteers were asked to record the prey items being brought back home by their cats. Based on the results of my survey, I proposed a suggestion about how to regulate cat’s outdoor activity to reduce their impact on local wildlife.

There were 27 voluntary cat owners with 44 free-ranging cats surveyed. Among them, 23 cats were monitored for >1 year, 13 cats for 1/2 year, and eight cats for less <1/2 year. Total prey items recorded was 542, including 10 species of three orders of mammal, 17 species of five orders of birds, seven species of two orders of reptiles, two species of one order of amphibians, nine orders of insects, and five species of four orders of the others. With those cats that had been record >1 year, a total of 244 prey item were discovered. On average, a cat could hunt > 10.6 prey items per year. Of which, small mammals account for 46.31%, birds 24.18%, reptile 13.52%, insect 13.52%, amphibian 0.82%, and others 1.64% by number.

For mammals, brown rats (Rattus norvegeicus) and brown country rats (Rattus losea) were the main captured preys, while house shrews (Suncus murinus) come second. Among birds, tree sparrows (Passer montanus) were the main captured preys, while the individual percentage of other avian captured species was <10%. Among reptiles, common house geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) were captured most often, while long-tailed skinks (Mabuya longicaudata) come second. Among insects, Blattaria around human living places were captured the most.

The composition of cats’ preys varied with seasons significantly. In spring and summer, cats brought home more preys, while in winter they brought the least number of prey items. Mammals were captured all year around and there was no significant difference among seasons. However, birds were captured more often in spring and summer. Reptiles and insects were captured more often in summer. Cats obviously caught more preys in daytime than at night. The best period for cats to hunt was 6-12 a.m. and 18-24 p.m. Mammals were caught most often in 18-24 p.m., birds in 6-12 a.m., and reptiles in the morning.

In view of results mentioned above, it was suggested that a better protection for wildlife from free-ranging is to reduce the quantity that birds and reptiles captured by cats by keeping cats from going out in daytime in spring and summer.



Key words: Conservation, pet, subtropical, exotic species, predation





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