spp. represent a serious threat to a wide range of crops. They are difficult targets for herbicides, and biological control could provide a possible solution. This work therefore aimed to formulate mycoherbicides of Fusarium
with adequate shelf life and virulence against Orobanche
but safe to faba bean and tomato. Only two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum
Schlecht. (Foxy I and Foxy II) obtained from diseased Orobanche
shoots were found to be pathogenic to Orobanche crenata
Forsk. and Orobanche ramosa
L. Conidial suspension of both isolates significantly decreased germination, attachments and tubercles of Orobanche
. Microconidia and chlamydospores of both isolates were formulated as mycoherbicides encapsulated in a wheat flour–kaolinmatrix (four different formulations). All formulations greatly diminished Orobanche
emerged shoots, total shoot number, shoot height, attachment of emerged shoots, the germinated seeds that succeeded in emerging above the soil surface and dry weight. Meanwhile, disease incidence and disease severity of emerged shoots were enhanced. The shelf life was adequate, particularly for coarse, freshly prepared
, low-temperature-stored, microconidia-rich formulations. The induced growth reduction of Orobanche
-infected host plants seemed to be nullified by formulations, particularly at the highest dose. These formulations seemed to destroy Orobanche
but appeared harmless to host plants. Hence, they could be efficiently used as mycoherbicides for biological control of Orobanche
in faba bean and tomato.
biocontrol; faba bean; Fusarium oxysporum; mycoherbicides; Orobanche; pesta formulations; tomato
Pest Management Science, 64, 1237-1249 (2008)
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